India Topic 2

How was India governed?

  • Control of India removed from East India Company 
  • 70,000 British in India 
  • Most important British rep = Viceroy 
  • Towns had a council which were largely Indian
  • Beginning 20th-century viceroy Curzon = Determined to maintain British control
  • Local law and order = Indians however thinly spread
  • Indians could apply to enter Civil Services u test held in London until 1919
  • Council of India 15 members = none Indian 
  • Brits cut off from Indian society 
  • Controlled from Westminster Army was majority Indian with British commanders 
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How Successful was British Rule?

  • Very 
  • Manpower for the British army 
  • Supplied cheap raw materials 
  • Most Indians loyal 
  • Few demanded home rule 
  • District officers hard working and honest
  • Indians free to travel to Britain for further education
  • Indian National Congress offered statement and loyalty to Britain 
  • Indians volunteered to help 
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However...

  • Countryside = British control weak
  • Indians prevented from taking part in admin and government duties 
  • Control of industry to prevent competition with Britain
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British relation with Princes

  • Loyal to British
  • Linked to Britain by treaties
  • Princes were independent 
  • Britain ruled 2/3 of India 
  • 1/3 ruled by Princes 
  • Princely states had residents who were appointed by Viceroy 
  • Paid for warships, squadrons and aircraft during WW2
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Irwin Declaration

  • Dominion status
  • Indian reps invited as a natural development 
  • Reiterated Montagu Declaration 
  • Congress welcomed 
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Simon Commission

  • Fought to retain direct contact between British and India 
  • No Indian representation 
  • Report on working of Government of India 
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India's demand for Home Rule

  • 1906 Indian Muslim League set up 
  • Congress demanded Home Rule 
  • Indian economy controlled by British 
  • Indians had little say in government and administration
  • Power was in British hands 
  • Viceroy Curzon = little interest in self government 
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