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China before 1949:

Imperial China was made up of the Qing Dynasty. This consisted of the ideas of:
Confucianism ­ accept the unchanging social order
Hierarchy ­ ruling Emperor
Conservativeness ­ rigid social conventions
Isolating China from the foreign world ­ this allowed China to develop a sense of superiority…

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Fear and uncertainty was created
China became a nation of informers
Property seizure from landlords ­ it was distributed amongst the peasants and informers

Purges of CCP:
Those who didn't follow the Party Line were condemned as Rightists
The HFC allowed members to criticise policies but they were later arrested…

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Instead of the Emperor, there was Mao ­ their roles were very similar
The PRC also hardly allowed normal people to be involved in government
The CCP's rule was as uncompromising and self-perpetuating as that of the Emperors

The state controlled the media ­ this allowed government opinion to…

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Those with middle-class backgrounds were condemned simply for that reason
Cadres (dedicated CCP workers) spied on fellow CCP peers

The bourgeoisie was eliminated
Only one class should exist ­ the bourgeoisie class
Proletarian revolution could only be achieved through violence
This violence was used to destroy all capitalist elements


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acquire a very powerful position in the Far East (and at very little cost to themselves because the
Chinese PLA would be fighting instead of the USSR's RA).
The USSR deliberately missed the Security Council meeting that concluded that a UN army would be
sent to Korea ­ Stalin wanted…

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The Hundred Flowers Campaign

Party members were allowed freedom of expression to comment constructively on China. It called
upon critics to be open on their thoughts.
E.g. Mao made a speech on "Contradictions" ­ he talked of the successes of the first FYP but also
complained about the heavy-handed methods…

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By revolutionizing agriculture and industry, the PRC could catch up and overtake the capitalist

Dependence on USSR's model:
Mao admired the USSR for what it had achieved economically but he regretted that the PRC
had become so dependent on them.
He was determined to match the USSR's economic achievement…

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The USSR stopped providing technical assistance in 1960. This led to 150 plants, which
had been sponsored by the USSR, being closed down.
Mechanical diggers were shunned in favor of the earth being moved by the hands of the

o Also, political interference getting in the way of proper…

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The peasantry needed to be brought under strict central control and direction. Mao
himself said that the state should prevent peasants from eating too much.

o Consolidating the CCP's power:
RC's central government directed the whole system e.g. farming methods, sales and
distribution of produce.
Private farming abolished
Internal passports…

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Local officials were aware of the failures of lysenkoism, sparrowcide and the fact that
millions were dying. Yet they didn't speak out, and instead reported that production
targets were being met and that the GLF was on course.
Mao, on his visits to the countryside, never saw these failures because…


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