Mao's China notes

Mao's China notes

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  • Created on: 09-06-14 19:00
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China before 1949:
Imperial China was made up of the Qing Dynasty. This consisted of the ideas of:
Confucianism ­ accept the unchanging social order
Hierarchy ­ ruling Emperor
Conservativeness ­ rigid social conventions
Isolating China from the foreign world ­ this allowed China to develop a sense of superiority
Revolution, 1911:
This revolution ended China's subjection to the West by adopting Western political and
economic ways
A republic was set up - warlords competed for power
CCP vs GMD ­ the CCP won against the GMD as well as the Japanese, and established the
PRC (1949). The GMD fled to Taiwan.
Mao before 1949:
Mao was a firm believed in dialects ­ historical development through conflict between social
classes.
He believed that progress resulted from the suppression of the weak ­ power was gained
through violence
Jianjxi Soviet, 1927-34:
The GMD-CCP unity broke down
Mao and the CCP forced moved to Jiangxi and organized a guerilla resistance against the
GMD
The Jiangxi Soviet was established and was dedicated to achieving peasant revolution
The Long March, 1934-4:
The GMD attacked the CCP base in Jiangxi
Mao and 100K troops fled to Yanan in Shaanxi
Though this was later turned into a glorious propaganda event, the journey actually took one
year to complete and only 20K survived
Yanan Years, 1935-45
Mao imposed his personal authority on the CCP ­ he had opponents to his power removed
"Rectification of Conduct" campaign were purges Mao ordered in order to consolidate his
hold
Mao's countryside policies:
The CCP committed ferocious atrocities against the peasants in order to force them to join
the fight against the GMD
Mao's son, Anying, was sent to the countryside for "toughening up" and he recorded the
barbaric events that he witnessed there.
The failings of these policies were blamed upon Liu Shaoqui
Reshaping China under Mao:
Mao needed to bring stability back to China after years of turmoil. Thus, he began to remove
opposition to the CCP:
External parties were outlawed
The GMD officials were to provide the PRC with the necessary continuity for administration
but were later labeled as class enemies
Anti-Movements were public campaigns against anyone who opposed official party policy ­ it
was aimed at those who were socially or politically suspect
EFFECTS:

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Fear and uncertainty was created
China became a nation of informers
Property seizure from landlords ­ it was distributed amongst the peasants and informers
Purges of CCP:
Those who didn't follow the Party Line were condemned as Rightists
The HFC allowed members to criticise policies but they were later arrested
The Great Leap Forward, 1958-62:
Mao aimed to industrialize China to such an extent that they would match the West
He copied Stalin's 5-Year Plan model as a starting point
However, unlike the USSR Mao…read more

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Instead of the Emperor, there was Mao ­ their roles were very similar
The PRC also hardly allowed normal people to be involved in government
The CCP's rule was as uncompromising and self-perpetuating as that of the Emperors
Media:
The state controlled the media ­ this allowed government opinion to be reflected as well as
providing an opportunity to praise Mao for all he'd succeeded in doing
These opinions in government were greeted with universal approval from newspapers and
journals
Mao's changing reputation:
Though the…read more

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Those with middle-class backgrounds were condemned simply for that reason
Cadres (dedicated CCP workers) spied on fellow CCP peers
The bourgeoisie was eliminated
Only one class should exist ­ the bourgeoisie class
Proletarian revolution could only be achieved through violence
This violence was used to destroy all capitalist elements
Registration was used as a weapon.…read more

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Far East (and at very little cost to themselves because the
Chinese PLA would be fighting instead of the USSR's RA).
The USSR deliberately missed the Security Council meeting that concluded that a UN army would be
sent to Korea ­ Stalin wanted to entice the USA into conflict.
Mao had no idea that the USSR was exploiting China.…read more

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The Hundred Flowers Campaign
Party members were allowed freedom of expression to comment constructively on China. It called
upon critics to be open on their thoughts.
E.g. Mao made a speech on "Contradictions" ­ he talked of the successes of the first FYP but also
complained about the heavy-handed methods used to apply the policies.…read more

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By revolutionizing agriculture and industry, the PRC could catch up and overtake the capitalist
West
Dependence on USSR's model:
Mao admired the USSR for what it had achieved economically but he regretted that the PRC
had become so dependent on them.
He was determined to match the USSR's economic achievement but he wanted China to do
it without following the methods of the USSR.…read more

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The USSR stopped providing technical assistance in 1960. This led to 150 plants, which
had been sponsored by the USSR, being closed down.
Mechanical diggers were shunned in favor of the earth being moved by the hands of the
people.
o Also, political interference getting in the way of proper industrial management made the plan
impossible to manage purely as an economic enterprise.
o Quality control (monitoring standard of product) was impossible to sustain.…read more

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The peasantry needed to be brought under strict central control and direction. Mao
himself said that the state should prevent peasants from eating too much.
o Consolidating the CCP's power:
RC's central government directed the whole system e.g. farming methods, sales and
distribution of produce.…read more

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Local officials were aware of the failures of lysenkoism, sparrowcide and the fact that
millions were dying. Yet they didn't speak out, and instead reported that production
targets were being met and that the GLF was on course.
Mao, on his visits to the countryside, never saw these failures because of the conspiracy
of silence ­ instead he was met with happy peasants and long stalks of grain being
produced.…read more

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