HVII

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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 10-05-13 14:20

HVII- CONSOLIDATING CROWN

  • declared reign 21st August 1484- traitors act of attainder
  • public rewards- knighted 11
  • sent Willoughby- Sheriff Huton secure marriage Eliz York and Warwick in tower. PAPAL DISPENSATION
  • sent proclamation RIII= dead, H=rightful king grace of God. Shedding infants blood
  • Coronation= 30th Oct Parlia= 7th Nov. Prove rightful king not made through parliament
  • coronation= lavish, purp velvet
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HVII titles given out (start)

  • John Morton= Chancellor of England
  • Lord Dynham (yorkist)= Treasurer Exchequer
  • Bishop Peter Courtaneny= Keeper Privy Seal
  • William Stanley= Lord Chamberlain
  • Jasper Tudor= duke of Bedford
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HVII First Parliament

  • 7th November
  • Declaration as king, grace of god
  • attanders- RIII, reverse some
  • Financial matters- tunnage & poundage, act of Resumption (crown lands)
  • legislation- maintain public peace, enforce law and order
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Elizabeth of York

  • 10th December marry Eliz- after coronation, political statement he is rightful king not through her
  • united two warring houses
  • legitimate heirs secure dynasty
  • 8 kids- 4 reach adult
  • coronation delayed until Arthur born and after Simnel
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REBELLIONS

  • Lovell- 1486
  • Yorkshire 1487
  • Warbeck 1491-99
  • Cornwall 1489
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Lovell 1486

  • Lovell & Staff bros- Humphery & Thomas
  • L= executed
  • H= executed
  • T= pardonded

OUTCOMES:

  • rules of sanc altered- treason = NO
  • Yorkists learn need Yorkist Prince
  • HVII= weak internationally
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SIMNEL 1486/7

  • pretend Yorkist prince
  • Marg Burg sponsor 2,000 Germ mercs led by Shwarz & finance
  • Lincoln & Lovell- army- Dublin
  • Anglo-Irish recognise S as EV, coronated 24th May 
  • Lincoln= on HVII's counsel- defected
  • Hen prepare becons in Norwich
  • commissioned fleet
  • rebels land Cumbria- remote, inaccessible, known allies
  • rebels wrote letters allies- John Lord Scrope
  • HVII summoned nobles & retinue COV/NOTTS
  • relied Duke Bedford command battalion
  • King reach Notts, regroup army 15,000, large # knights JAMES BLOUNT= tough, skillful archers
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SIMNEL 1486/7- BATTLE OF STOKE 1487

  • threat- H did not know size army, route, power- unpredictable
  • limitations- 8,000 failed win support
  • Linc= top of ridgeGMS at front
  • king= OX ARCHERS- steel tipped aroows, Irish casualties
  • Shwarz not hold back, demoralised
  • Linc= dead
  • Simnel= alive, saved by Bellingham
  • King return Newark, ordered GMS out country, hung rebels & irish
  • spared english rebels- bongs and recs
  • Nov parliament= 28 rebels attainted
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Yorkshire revellion 1489

  • subsidy defend Britt, Earl Northumberland collect tax
  • men in Northumberland & Yorkshire alreadt oaid through local taxes
  • Rebels 1489 broke out
  • Leader= John a Chambre
  • Earl NT= isolated & murdered
  • rebels ask for pardon- NO. NT represent king, attack royal authority
  • re-establish royal authority sent army north, led Early Surrey
  • Chambre= hung

OUTCOMES:

  • need re-establish royal authority
  • can't raise tax again
  • foreign policy= defensive
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WARBECK TIMELINE

  • 1491- Cork, Ireland
  • 1492- fled France
  • 1493- Burgundy
  • 1494- HRE
  • 1495- 1st invasion UK
  • 1496- Scotland
  • 1497- Ireland
  • 1498- captured, tower try escape
  • 1499- W & W executed
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Warbeck 1491- Cork, Ireland

  • John Atawater confirm Richard Duke of York
  • HVII sent small army
  • W= insufficient support
  • FLED FRANCE 1492
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WARBECK- 1492 FRANCE/ 1493 BURGUNDY

  • Charles VIII @ war UK
  • received & shelter W recognise as prince
  • HVII TREATY ETAPLES
  • W fled burgundy- Marg Burg trained him
  • Trade Embargo 1493
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WARBECK- 1494 HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

  • Maximillian= betrayed by Etaples, UK & France peace
  • recognised W
  • lack sufficient military resources
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WARBECK- 1495

  • 1st invasion UK
  • Netherlands- Deal, Kent
  • H= forewarned Sir Robert Clifford, sent small army deal with it
  • Cliff implicate W Stanley- executed
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Warbeck Scotland 1496

  • JIV shelter W & pension
  • marry JIV cousin Lady Catherine Gordon
  • 1496- Scto army invade UK
  • FAIL rally support when in UK
  • H purused W- 1497 IRELAND
  • Negotiate JIV marry princess Marg
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Warbeck 1497

  • Ireland Kildare= loyal HVII
  • W- Cornwall Rebellion
  • proved W= inadequate leader
  • HVII sent Daubeney deal @ Exeter
  • W- santuary, gave self up
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WARBECK'S CONCLUSION

  • H= lenient
  • War remain court with wife
  • 1498- try escape, imprison tower London
  • plot escape Earl Warwick
  • 1499- executed treason
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CONRWALL 1497

raise tax in Cornwall war against Scot

  • 'aggresively' collected, corruption
  • parliament- 20+ shillings only, not applied to Cornwall
  • led by Michael Flamanck (lawyer) & Michael Joseph (blacksmith)
  • 6,000 ill armed peasant march peacefully LDN
  • Warbeck hijacked
  • lacked menace, fail enter Exeter, gained few supporters
  • W- deserted
  • Audley join rebels
  • Rebels supressed Daubeney
  • many rebels killed, leaders executed

OUTCOMES:

  • king not raise tax
  • defensive foreign policy
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FOREIGN POLICY- TREATIES

  • France- Treaty of Etaples 1492
  • Spain- Medina Del Campo 1489
  • Brittany- Treaty of Redon 1489
  • Burgundy- Embargo 1493, Magnus Intercursus 1496
  • Scotland- Treaty of Ayton 1497
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FRANCE- FP

  • Fran= dominant power Europe, absorb Brittany. Make CVIII richer, threaten UK trade & proximity
  • H- owed Britt exile 14 yrs
  • H= weak military & £'s
  • MAX AND FRED= allies, Fred= war Moors, Max= Hungary war
  • HVII- 1488 ACT ALONE
  • 1489 Treaty of Redon- assist Britt, 3,000 troops paid Anne of Britt (CVIII marry Anne 1491)
  • Hvii parliament- subsidy raise army 12,000 (Yorkshire 1489)
  • launch campaign late fight season, fran want war against Italy, not waste money on UK war
  • short seige Boulogne, end TREATY ETAPLES 1492
  • ETAPLES= french pay £5,000 pa pension, CVIII not support imposters, HVII remove troops Brittany
  • OUTCOMES-
  • ETAPLES 1492- £ & security
  • 2 degades Anglo-French relations= good
  • H- secure international recognition
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BURGUNDY FP

  • Burg= independent from France- anti-france
  • UK & BURG= major wool exports, wollen cloth merchants went through burg merchants, prosperity rely good relations
  • Marg Burg- RIII sis, opponent, unreliable, married MAX
  • 1489 Max & H- Treaty of Dordecht, Max send troops Britt, H send 3,000 support. MAX BUSY HUNGARY, bail & peace CVIII
  • 1493- Trade Embargo (supoport W)- banish burg merchants from UK, max counter-embarg 1494. 1495 W left
  • Max want UK support France, both suffer embargo restrictions
  • 1496- INTERCURSUS MAGNUS- english trade in Burg except Flander free, no custom duties, fair justice in courts
  • Isobella Castile dead 1504, H back Phillip Burg, protect trade, gain Suffolk
  • Phillip= shipwrecked UK, H=support. INTERCURSUS MALUS (bad), Windsor 1506
  • Phillip & Joanna= Castile
  • Aragon= Aragon
  • Phillip= dead 1506, Joanna= mad FERD= CASTILE
  • H got Suffolk
  • H abandoned Malus, 1508- Fra, Spain & Burg= Treaty Cumbrai ISOLATE UK
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SPAIN FP

  • Medina Del Campo 1489- mutual support/defence, no peace/alliances with France, not harbour rebels/pretenders, Princess Catherine of Aragon marry Prince Arthur
  • Marriage agreed 1499, marry 1501
  • Arthur died 1502, Cath & Hen VIII= betrothed, papal dispensation

LIMITATIONS:

  • H back Phillip, Spain & France= treaty og Blois 1505, Ferd 1506 marry Louis XII niece
  • Fer didn't help Britt (Moors)
  • Warbeck threatened marriage C& A- political instability
  • arguments about size/payment of dowry
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SCOTLAND- FP

  • borderwarfare= difficult
  • Franco-Scottish Alliance
  • JIV= minor, Earl of Agnus= regency
  • 1495- old enough, dedicated warrior, sums of £ on weapons
  • JIV recognise Warbeck 1496, shelter, pension, marriage LCG (cousin)
  • 1496- support W invade UK
  • H sent large army earl Surrey, marshelled UK troops on border
  • JIV saved from invasion Cornish Rebel 1497
  • TREATY OF AYTON 1497: end warfare, harmony
  • formal peace treaty 1502
  • JIV marry Princess Margaret 1503
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IRELAND FP

  • Warbeck crisis- H forced Earl Kildare & nobles oath of alleigience 
  • 1491- W appear Cork, Ireland
  • W- France 1492
  • 1494- H put Poynings as Lord Deputy to- undermine nobles 'Poyning's laws' prevent parliamentry sessions or passing legislation without UK approval, restore order crush major rebelliong by Kildare bro, arrest Kildare- LDN Uk prisoner, lands attainted
  • 1496- reverted rules Ireland through Anglo-Irish nobles
  • reinstate Kildare as deputy
  • reversed attainter, kept K's son in UK court
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NOBLES- INTRO

  • 60 noble familes end WOR
  • nobles drawn more central & local government
  • nobles= social climbers (Sir Reginald Bray died left £1,000 per year in lands)
  • legal training nobles= skilled administrators
  • BASTARD FEUDALISM- Primus Interparis (1st among equals)
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NOBLES- READDRESS BALANCE BASTARD FEUD

  • H rely on lower class, lawyers, moved them into counsel
  • mid 1940s audit land & rev, fines etc
  • COUNCIL LEARNED 1495- enforce bond & recs
  • Pollard= anti- noble
  • Williams= not anti noble
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NOBLES- Act of Attainder

  • parliament pass
  • guilty of crime against king (treason)
  • imprisoned
  • fam lose right inherit land, titles etc
  • Thomas Howard- Lost Dukedom Norfolk after Bos
  • 1485-6: 28 attainted
  • 1487- 28
  • 1495: 24
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NOBLES- Illegal Retaining

  • private armies, servants wore nobles livery
  • 1485- commons swear no illegal retaining
  • 1504- nobles special licenses
  • 1506- Lord Burgaveny fined £70,000 471 men illegal
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NOBLES- BONDS AND RECOGNISANCES

  • bond= acknowledge owing lump sum stated, not paid if good condition observed (good behav)
  • Recognisance= acknowledge deb/ obligation enforced by a bond
  • The Marquis of Dorest- help Simnel- 1493-4- £3,000, 1504-05- £75,000
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FINANCE

  • H inherited bankrupt throne
  • had pay ordinary & extraordinary revenue
  • need steady & secure income continue centralisation of power & disipline realm
  • solvent reasury in will to HVIII- competent financial management
  • BACON= GREEDY
  • GUY= NOT GREEDY
  • H develop administrative techniques, increase power reduce risk of rebellions
  • H appointed zealous agents, legal training, ensure rev collected
  • agents benefit patronage- rweards, increase status & wealth
  • king carefully supervised- direct sometimes royal spies
  • Sir Edward Belksnap- Surveyor of King's Prerogative, £7,000 in 7 months HATED
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FINANCE- Exchequer & Chamber

  • initially excheuqer, employed own officials accurate but slow and less efficient
  • previous kings- Chamber but collapsed. H lack financial skill re-construct immediate, cautious 
  • 1493- Exchequer lost right collect rev from crown lands
  • BONDS to surveyors

RIII- 1484- Chamber= £25,000 pa

HVII- Exchequer- £12,000

HVII- 1508- Chamber- £42,000

Treasurer of Chamber= Thomas Lovell & Heron

Chamber= major financial office, financial documents, scrutinised & stored list debts, bonds & recs, fines land sales

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FINANCE- Ordinary Revenue

  • king live of his own, pay costs of government, regular income
  • 1. CUSTOM DUTIES- crack down corrupt officials, duties increase £33,000 - £40,000 pa
  • 2. CROWN LANDS- Act of Attainder & Resumption all lost WOR, 1486- £12,000, 1508- £42,000
  • 3. Feudal dues- relief- inherit dad, minor= warship- pay livery when old enough to inherit, marriage dues, aid when knighting eldest son & marry eldest daughter. COUNSEL LEARNED- 1487- under £350, 1507- £6,000 Robert Willoughby De Broke £400 livery BANKRUPT
  • 4. Profits of Justice- issue royal writs & letters paid for in fees. Fines imposed by king , courts directly to crown
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FINANCE- EXTRAORDINARY REVENUE

  • raise money from additional sources as a 1 off payments, emergencies/ extraordinary expenses
  • 1. Parliamentary subsidies: grant directly assessed subsidy, each subsidy approx £29,000
  • 2. Loans: voluntary loans from richer subjects e.g merchants. 1485- £10,000 (re-paid all) over reign £203,000
  • 3. Benovolances: forced with thread of sanction if not paid. 1491: £48,000 (britt)
  • Bonds: lump sum paid if conditio not observed, Recognisances- formal acknowledgment of debt enforced Council Learned in the Law
  • 4. Feudal obligations- tenants-in-chief obliged to pay aid to king on knightship eldest son & marry eldest daughter. £30,000 Arthur knighted
  • 5. Clerical taxes: convocation (church assembly) match parliamentary subsidy. Clerical grant £9,000 on each subsidy
  • 6. French pension: 1475annual pension EIV, Etaples 1491- agree pay arrears of Picquiny, £159,000 over several years
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GOVERNMENT

  • HVII used existing institutions & relationships- not innovative
  • 1471- nobles= less independent, more local agents specify transmit royal authority
  • king manage own finances, cornw lands, feudal dues
  • court reformed renassiance courts
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GOVERNMENT- English courts

  • court= magnificent (copy French)
  • H cultivate own image- command subjects obedience and increase authority
  • propoganda- gen pub= illiterate, built magnificent royal palaces, elaborate ceremonies
  • court= source patronage grew as king's buracracy expanded, magnates power decrease
  • several levels to court
  • 1. Least political (service dept)- scullery/catering 
  • 2. 2 political sections: Privy Chamber 1490s by HVII place for personal servants 2: chamber- overseen by chamberlain at centre of patronage
  • court places= values. Opp promote family & local interest LADDER
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GOVERNMENT- patronage

  • king not rule alone, rely loyal servants carry out local government & represent king at royal court. Expect patronage- lands, grants, titles, offices, commisions
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GOVERNMENT- COUNSEL

  • The Counsel- advised king, act as court of law, flex body, few procedures/formal rules
  • during reign 227 men attend, innor core 6/7 close advisors
  • link between king and central government & subjects and local government
  • messages & reports flow from counsel to justiceof Peace
  • specialised committees of counsel- Star Chamber 1487 (complaints and maintenance), Counsel Learned 1495- feudal landlord, debt collect unpopular.
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GOVERNMENT- PARLIAMENT

  • lords & commons
  • called by king legislate & grant tax
  • HVIII- 7. 
  • 5= first decade
  • 2= 2nd half of reign
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GOVERNMENT- Justices of the Peace

  • H increase status & workload of JPs
  • curb power of sheriffs
  • 7 parliaments relevant to work of JPs
  • amateur, crown-paid, crown-controlled administrators, great body of legislation
  • operate 4 times year- Quarter sessions
  • law & courtadministrative meetings in each county town
  • JPs deal with risks, unlawful assemblies, illegal retaining, extortion, poaching, gambling etc
  • H= anxious about effectiveness, if not satisfied leave off name for next year
  • Act 1489- procedures/complaints against JPs
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GOVERNMENT- Administration of Justice

  • good justiciar
  • respected judical independence 
  • retained judges RIII had, only replace on death/retire
  • Sir William Huse- Chief Justice of King's Bench, Sept 1485 (RIV&RIII)
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GOVERNMENT- Management of the Chrch

  • H= roman catholic
  • recognise pope as spiritual leader of christian church
  • king ran church, church= loyal to hen
  • confirm sanctity of royal office (coronation)H tight control church appointments, select well educated churchmen
  • H allow bishops prove alleigence to tudor dynasty & then trust with responsibilities
  • Thomas Langton deprived livings, by 1493= Bishop of Winchester
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GOVERNMENT- Relations with Papacy

  • received papal support
  • popes need support against french & spanish aggression in Italy
  • after Bos H declare obedience to pope
  • dispensation marry Arth to Eliz York- kids= legitimate
  • 1486- pope's decision not plead sanctuary for treason
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TRADE

  • not primary source of £
  • provide £40,000 pa 1509
  • serve dynastic needs
  • genuine desire encourage growth in shipping, exports etc
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TRADE- Burgundy

  • main exports- wool/woollen cloth main european cloth trading centre in Antwerp
  • political enemey= Marg Burg- relations inconsistent
  • 1493- Trade Embargo (Max back Warbeck)
  • 1495- Intercursus Magnus with Philip (UK merchants= free anywhere but Flanders, no feudal duties, tax)
  • 1506- Intercursus Malus / Treaty of Windsor- never implemented
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TRADE- France

  • inconsistent relations
  • 1487- UK back Breton, France impose restrictions on trade
  • 1492- Treaty of Etaples, reduce restrictions
  • 1495- France end all restrictions, secure english neutrality. Italian wars
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TRADE- Cloth Trade

  • 90% of all exports= wool and cloth
  • H limit trading rights by foreign traders in UK undermine Hansa
  • 1487- banned export unfinished products by foreign merchants
  • 1489- end Hansa privilidges
  • 1504- restore Hansa's privilidges gain earl of suffolk
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TRADE- shipping

  • did little uk navy- weaker state than Yorkist kings
  • IV= 16 ships, H let decline
  • 1487- 7 ships
  • 1488- 5 ships
  • Navigation acts 1485 & 1489 uk ships used more in certain trades, encourage uk shipping & shipbuilding 
  • end foreign dependency on foreign ships
  • 1509- 1/2 trade= foreign ships
  • limited success
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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT- Agriculture

  • 90% pop= peasants, struggling survive SUBISTENCE AGRICULTURE, pay rent/taxes
  • most important influence= quality harvest
  • decline in open field system
  • growin profitability in wool encourage enclosure & engross farms- less intensive but cause rural depopulation
  • H pass legislation 1488&9 prevent depopulation but never enforced
  • wool= important cloth everyone
  • UK wool main ingredient in Flemish cloth industry based in Antwerp
  • increase foreign demand, increase UK wool prices
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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT- Industry

  • most important= wool and cloth rade
  • 1508-09 20% of value in export trade in Newcastle
  • 1496- H sponsored building blast furnace in Newbridge make araments Scottish War
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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT- coinage

  • new denominations in gold & silver- new designs
  • shilling piece 1st time had king head on/face wearing a closed crown (IMPERIAL POWER)
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