- Created by: jessica7
- Created on: 02-05-20 09:41
Truman Doctrine speech, 12 Mar 1947
- In the Truman Doctrine, the president stated it was the responsibility of the USA to prevent the spread of communism.
- Truman exaggerated the threat to alarm Congress into voting for aid for Greece & Turkey.
- Congress voted to give $400mn, $250 of whch went to Greece & remainder to Turkey.
- Clear decleration of war
- Represented culmination of US fears & policy to date
- Doctrine was accompanied by an increase in military preparation
- Hostile Republican Congress to vote him money
- In getting American public to support him
- Criticised by Rep. Senator Taft - too simplistic to divide the world in two
- George Kennan said it was too sweeping as did not ask the right questions
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National Security Act, 1947
- Designed to improve the USA's war making capacity by merging War & Navy Departments into a new enlarged Defence Department based at the Pentagon.
- Established the CIA
- Central Intelligence Agency's function was to gather intelligence on actual or potential enemies.
- CIA engaged in spying & secret operations abroad & was an important instrument of containment.
- Act also created the National Security Council which reported directly to the president - gradually assumed an important role in developing policy towards the USSR.
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Marshall Plan, 5 June 1947 (1)
- Programme of economic assistance for Western Europe.
- US saw Europe as being in economic crisis.
- Whilst grim, was not as bad as US feared.
- Main purpose was to contain communism.
- Aimed to make communism have less appeal.
- Proposed large grants which European countries would use to purchase food, raw materials & industrial machinery from US - also stimulating US economy
- Soviets were invited to join although Washington didn't actually want them to participate.
- Stalin rejected it as perceived it as a challenge to his control.
- Stalin feared the Soviets would be left without resources & markets & the sphere of influence would disintegrate.
- Soviets created the Molotov Plan.
- Sept 1947: Cominform was established.
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Marshall Plan, 5 June 1947 (2)
- Between 1948 & 1952,spending came to $13bn - main recipients were Britain, France & Germany. By 1952, industrial production increased by 35% & agricultural output by 10% in these states - MP accelerated post war recovery.
- Stalin's rejection signalled the economic & political division of Europe.
- Iron Curtain really did begin to descend across Europe.
- Hungary, 1948: non-communists expelled from govt
- Feb 1948: the Czech expressed an interest - pro-Western Czech foreign minister Jan Masaryk was murdered.
- Opposition from Congress to financing MP crumbled after thte Czech murder.
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Berlin Blockade, June 1948 (1)
- Stalin blocked Western Access to the Western zones by road, rail & waterway - prupose: force Americans to drop proposals for a West German State.
- Truman responded by air lifting supplies into Berlin.
- American & British planes flew more than 200,000 planes into Berlin in 320 days, delivering food & coal to 2mn west Berliners.
Stalin ended blockade in May 1949.
- First crisis of the Cold War.
- Both Stalin & Truman not prepared to risk all-out war.
- Stalin's plans failed.
- Led to creation of a strongly pro-Western American Western state.
- Led to establishment of NATO.
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Berlin Blockade, June 1948 (2)
- Truman had shown he was not prepared to give in to Stalin - marked a major victory for the Americans.
- In the face of the Blockade, the Western powers demonstrated great unity and commitment.
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Creation of a West German State
- US believed it was engaged in a battle with Soviets to win the hearts of German people.
- May 1949: constitution drawn up for a new West German state - combo of the 3 Western zones.
- After blockade, free elections took place & Federal Republic of Germany born in Sept 1949.
- Oct 1949: Soviets set up an East German state called the German Democratic Republic.
- A one party state governed by communists. East Germans started to patrol, mine & fence the 850 frontier with West Germany.
- Partition of Germany a microcosm of division of Europe.
- Neither superpower could afford to allow the whole of Germany to fall under the other's influence.
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NATO, Apr 1949
- Military alliance of 12 states.
- Agreed to adopt principle of collective security.
- Europe now divided militarily, politically & economically.
- NATO membership borugh military advanteges to US.
- In event of a Soviet invasion, US not solely responsible.
- European states provided valuable air bases.
- USSR created Warsaw Pact in 1955.
- American sphere of influence further consolidate in the West.
- Historic moment in US foreign policy - first treaty signed with a European state since American Revolution.
- NATO stabilised Europe - Asia became Cold War arena after this.
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