Cold War in Europe- Iron Curtain
Russian set up communist governments in the countries they 'freed'- puppet government. Yugoslavia was the only country to liberate itself.
Russian wanted Eastern Europe to be under their 'sphere of influence', this would create a buffer zone.
It was known as the Iron Curtain as neither country could see what was going on in the other. Winston Churchill came up with that phrase in 1946.
'An iron curtain fell across Europe'
Cold War in Europe- Containment
America was concerned that the whole of Europe would turn communist- domino affect
America was worried that Greece was going to start off the chain, due to it's civil war between Monarchists and Communists. Especially as the communists were starting to win.
Britain could not help, so they asked America. They said they were willing to help any country that was fighting communism, giving them miltary support. The Truman Doctrine.
This initiated containment, the giving of military and financial support (Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan)
Cold War in Europe- Berlin Crisis
West Berlin was described as an island of capitalism in a sea of communism.
Berlin was split in half as was Germany, many people fleed west Berlin for a better life.
1949-61- 3 million fled into west Berlin as it offered a better life with prosperity.
America spent billions to ensure it was prosperous, to attack communists away from communism
Cold War in Europe- Berlin Crisis 2
Many young people looked for a better life.
In 1961 a wall was built around west Berlin to stop those from communist parts entering, it was 20ft high and it cut whole streets apart.
1961- JFK visited west Berlin, wanting to show he was on the side of the capatalists.
'Ich bin ein Berliner' - 'I am a Berliner was what he meant to say but it translated as 'I am a doughnut'
The Arms Race
1949- Russia gets its first nuclear bomb.
People in America got suspicious that spys had given away inflrmation about how to make an atomic bomb
The Cold War moves to Asia
In 1949 China turned communist
America was worred that China might use its influence on other countries- Domino affect
Chairman Mao (Mao-Tse Tung) turned China communist
Civil war against Chinese nationalist- Chaing-Kai-Shek
He fled to Taiwan (Chinese for China) and set up his own country- very prosperous
The Cold War moves to Asia 2
1950-3 Korean War
North Korea is communist and tries to take over the South
People in America were really worried that if Korea fell to communism it would all be over. This was during the height of McCarthy Witchhunts which heightened fears.
North Korea= Kim il Sung and South Korea = Syngmann Rhee
Truman persuades the United Nations to get involved by sending an American Army
The Korean War
South Korea was almost taken over by capitalism, then America pushed them out to the very tip of North Korea.
In the end they settled with the same North/ South border as before.
The point was they had stopped communism taking over the whole of Korea, so was seen as a success