History: Tudor State 1536-88

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Tudor History Theory

Tudor Monarchy:

Henry VIII: 1509-1547        Mary I: 1553-1558

Edward VI: 1547-1553       Elizabeth I: 1558-1603

-Historians use different approaches: top-down approach looks at the effects from a higher political level and what the rulers at the top did, bottom-up approach looks at the effect such events had on the people of the country and their reactions

-Historian J.A Froude intially set the framework for all further Tudor study by completing a 12-part Tudor history volume set, and his top-down approach was later debated by A.G Dickens, who advocated a bottom-up approach

-Historians used to study it from a Catholic/Protestant perspective and this would influence waht they wrote, but when objectivity was introduced into academia this was no longer acceptable, and many Revisionist historians began to revise what had been written

-Christopher Haigh best known revisionist, argues a case of not just one reformation but several

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (1)

-English monarch ruled by Dei Gratia (by the will of God), and that by divine rights he was God's instrument on earth, and was thus supported by the Church and priests often warned a rebellion against the King was a rebellion against God, why treason was such a serious crime

-Monarch expected to protect/enforce laws, expected to work within them not without them, Rex is Lex and Lex is Rex (the King is the law and the law is King)

-Monarch could do things like raise troops, wage war, conduct peace: royal prerogative, however could not levy taxes/pass laws at will, clear from needing supporting Break with Rome

-Monarch personally involved in many elements of government (dictating policy/signing documents) so a lot of it depended on His willingness to work, Henry VII was a modicum of respect for this but not Henry VIII who wanted the government to work by itself

-Henry VIII "Bluff King Hal", Mary I "black legend of perseuction", Edward VI minority so Somerset and Northumberland criticised instead: "good and bad duke"

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (2)

-War of Roses (1455-1485) civil war between House of York (Richard III, White Rose) and the House of York (Henry VII, Red Rose), Henry won in 1485 at the Battle of Bosworth Field and married Elizabeth of York to unite the two houses, however Yorkist rivals did sway loyalties from time-to-time

-4th son of Edward III was John of Gaunt who had a daughter out of his wedlock called Margaret Beaufort, clauses were added to legitimise his ******* children but barring them from ascending to the throne, so when Margaret had Henry VII with Edmund Tudor his claim was weak

-Prince Edward V and Prince Richard were the only sons of Edward IV of England, who dies in 1483, they were murdered which ended the bloodline but no one is sue if by Richard III or Henry VII, but this kept succession in Henry VIII's line and became a great worry for him

-Henry VIII had an older brother called Arthur who the King focused on, grew up around women like sister Mary and his Mother, and the death of both his mother and brother had a long-lasting effect on him, Henry VII more interested in Henry VIII from 1502 onwards being the heir to the throne, Henry VII encouraged military/political training but kept him back from government/jousting

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (3)

-Henry VIII became King of England on the 21st April 1509 at 17, Henry VII was greatly feared for his dubious means of imposing financial penalties on his opponents, when Henry VIII came to powers had leaders of Henry VII financial intimidation executed to show his rule as different

-Henry VIII strong ruler who believed Kingsmanship came naturally, and often gave advisers independent scope but always directed policy, some argue Wolsey was Alter Rex (alternative king) because of influence he had over king however, fine athelete with a love of jousting although suffered weakness/pain from his leg injury, ate/drank excessive quantities of food, thought of himself as a "renaissance man", conformist on women/angry when women like Catherine of Aragon/Mary Ist refused to submit to him, had a strong belief of God throughout his entire life

-Cardinal Thomas Wolsey started as a son of a butcher from Ipswich but soon rose to become the King's chief minister, worked at court for Bishop John Fox, and when he gave advice that the King wanted to hear in comparison to Henry VII advisers who tried to bully him into new policies, and after successfull organisation of the English expeditionary force to France in 1512-13, Henry promoted him cheaply through the Church ranks, eventually becoming Archbishop of York and eventually recieved legatus al leture (papal powers) and became a Cardinal

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (4)

-Wolsey dealt with enemies using trumped up charges (Duke of Buckingham 1521), appointed/forced members of clergy to resign and imposed 10% tax on inheritence/wills, became well known for his greed/ruthlesness

-Common Law (In since 1066 and derived from practices of Roman Empire), Civil Law (favoured by forward-looking elements of society, looked at natural justice rather than punishment precedents)

-Wolsey made this accesible to poor/needy as well as rich, 1526 passed Eltham Ordiances to regularise finance of Privy Chamber, Wolsey made law of star chamber keep in line with Henry VIII strict policy towards nobility: enforce their own localities but not see themselves above law

-1518 Treaty of London (Treaty of Universal Peace) was signed by many states and was seen as a great triumph by Wolsey and glory for Henry, ensured states worked together or were attacked

-Field of the Cloth of Gold: 1520 Henry VIII and Francis I met at in this place just otuside of Calais, lasted for 2 weeks with many senior nobility attending and both Kings trying to make a good impression on the people, failed to cement Anglo-French unity as senior English nobility confirmed their anti-french prejudices and no major agreements took place, problem for Wolsey trying to show that the English weren't taking sides

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (5)

-Habsburg-Valois conflict: Charles V becoming Emperor added conflict with France over Milan, set backdrop of international relations till 1559, England was in a good position to help either side so their help was heavily demanded, Francis I went against Treaty of London and Henry sided with Spain but did little, Battle of Pavia (1525) led to French defeat and capture of French King, Henry VIII planned to demand parts of France but Charles V did not want to strengthen his position, and let Francis I go back to a severly weakned France 

-Wolsey tried to impose the Amicable Grant (nationwide tax) to go to war with France, but this project failed and in 1529 peace was made between the 3 rulers with Wolsey seen as weak

-Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon in 1509, and tried to concieve a son with her but failed many times, and by 1526 he was in love with Anne Boleyn, tried to annul marriage with Catherine many times and finally manged to in 1533 through Cramner/break with Rome, but let her keep old position and retain her only daughter Mary 1st, Catherine died in 1536

-Tried to do this by showing pope Bible passage (Leviticus 20-21) with theologian support but failed, then on grounds of clerical error in marriage ceritficate but Charles V refused to co-operate, Cardinal Campeggio sent, much time wasted, Wolsey tried under Praeminure (act forbidding clerics to cut across Crown authority e.g pope) and imprisoned till his death in 1530

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (6)

Possible reasons for Break with Rome (1534): Henry wanted a male heir, took his brother's wife which upset him, saw a chance to increase finances, corruption within Church could be dealt with, Anne Boleyn was protestant and gave books to Henry (Supplication of Beggars Simon Fish)

-Break with Rome: Started after attacks from Parilament led to them advocating a three lines of policy to improve it in 1530, led to Church wide Praeminure worth £100,000 to be paid off in the next 5 years and Henry declared "Supreme Head of the Church in England and Wales", in 1532 Supplication of the Ordinaries was passed meaning any change the Convocation made to Canon Law had to have the monarch's consent with it, same year Act in Restraint of Annates banned payment of all but 5% of annates (1/3 of money to pope from senior churchmen came from this), 1533 Act in Restraint of Appeals meant Pope had no jursidiction in England anymore/couldn't be appealed to, 1534 Act of First Fruit and Tenths (all clerical officer holders pay a years income on appointment and 10% every year after), 1536 Act of Extinguishing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome, tying up loose ends

-Anne Boleyn: Mother was daughter of Duke of Norfolk, returned from serving French Queen in 1522 and served as lady-in-waiting to Catherine, she was pregnant with Henry's child and Elizabeth was born 1533, however male child was stillborn and Henry saw sign of being cursed, led to Anne charged with 5 counts of adultery which led to her beheading in 1536

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Pre-Tudor 1536 (7)

Geographical/Diplomatic threats facing England before 1536:

-England relied heavily on wool trade in Netherlands, which was owned by the Spanish led by Charles V, Spain increasingly rich due to Columbuses intial expedition, Holy Roman Emperor means he commanded power over papal states and staunchly Catholic, Ferdinand and Isabella set up Spanish Inqusition in order to root out heresy (Catherine of Aragon was daughter)

-South East of England near London under firm grip of royal authority, people in this area influenced by foriegn view whereas people in North/West were conservative, Welsh Marches caused problems and needed strong Lords to rule them, and Scotland caused problems too as they had been rivals with English for centuries-Auld Alliance (French help Scottish fight English), north also had powerful conservative lords with their own agendas

-Hundred Years War ended in 1453, but King of England still kept title King of France which caused tension, French treaty they agreed in 1513 which invovled the marriage of Henry VIII's sister Mary to French King and then her quick marrying of Charles Brandon instead of mourning caused much anger, England also had an alliance between the Scottish with marrying of other sister Margaret but this didn't work as James IV was killed in 1513 at the Battle of Flodden

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (1)

-King's Private Servants: gentleman of Privy Chamber, close friends of the King, Groom of the Stool

-Privy Council: appointed by King, nobility, office holders, friends/favourites up to 100, most work done by inner circle, areas like this overlapped (e.g wills/property/finance controlled by Exchequer, but income/expenditure managed by Privy Council)

-THE KING: royal prerogative, king as feudal lord, military leader and source of justice, at his strongest when he exercised King-In-Parliament

-Royal Court and Household: Follows King on progress

-Prerogative Courts: Star Chamber, Council of the North/Welsh Marches

-Common Law Courts: Courts of King's Bench and Common Pleas, judges on circuit. Administration by paid officials in the Court of Chancery (wills, property) and Exchequer (fines, fees and payments)

-Military: Keepers, Wardens, Sheriffs and the Miltia, some areas and offices hold special franchise rights

-Local Courts: County assizes, Quarter Sessions, Justices of Peace (JP's), boroughs and corporations, only applied in England not Wales/Marches.

Key: Pink=Based in Court, Green=Established in London and did not travel with King

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (2)

The Church:

-Bishops/Archbishops members of Parliament (House of Lords) and could be a member of the Privy Council

-Church consecrated the King's coronation, emphasising his role under God, and taught the importance of oaths, loyalty and obedience to him

-Church also provided educated clerks/administrators for Royal service

-King protected the Church

-King's right to make appointments (subject to Papal agreement) gave him an important source of patronage

-Since 1534, mutual co-operation however became mutual control

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (3)

Parliament:

-Important but occasional, Parliament called to suit King's purposes, mainly on law/tax, sometimes trials and attainders

-King could make laws by proclamation (Prerogatives of the Crown), but King-in-Parliament stronger because it was recognised in statue law

-Upper House (Lords) filled with titled nobility/royal counsellors/bishops/abbots, Lower House (Commons) filled by County Gentry/Borough Corporations/Royal officials

-Whole system held together by King's decisions/patronage

-Greater nobility expected places on court/Council in recognition of their status, but to excercise real influence took position in the Royal Household alongside gentry who hoped to join the ranks of the greater nobility

-King excercised power over all 3 "estates": Knights, Clerks (clergy) and Labourers

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (4)

Position and Power of nobility:

-By 1530 economic developments created a more general hierarchy of classes, hugely accelerated by the Reformation when Church wealth was transeferred to the Crown

-Knightly estate of nobility/gentry remained at the heart of government in both court/country

-Members staffed King's household, formed a significant part of the Council and increasingly filled positions in the administrative courts of the Chancery and Exchequer

-Provided military support/law enforcement as Wardens/Governors/Sheriffs/JP's

-Ancestors land had been granted by the King to take on responsibilities within the areas under their control, and in return occupy many offices of state

-These positions allowed them to excercise patronage in their localities, and to provie acess to power/positions at court for their more talented supporters

-Howards (Duke of Norfolk), Percy's and Nevilles (Earls of Northumberland/Westmorland) and Courtenays (Earls of Devon) possessed regional power base that gave them independence

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (5)

Place of the Church:

-Church provided path to power through education/royal favour, cost King little to do this but there was danger of nobility exclusion, this type of dominance by Wolsey led to aristocrastic backlash

-Art of kingship for medieval monarchs lay in managing relations with territorial nobility

-Civil Wars of 15th century pruned ranks and as society became more settled and law-abiding, less military force was needed to maintain order

-Henry VIII's predecessors had managed to restrict private magnate armies and make the way to power through loyal service to the Crown

-Steady promotion of royal servants/favourites from lower ranks of nobility created a service nobility dependent on the Crown

-Many occassions had English Kings clashed with Pope over who should make decisions in England, country had experienced some Reformist ideas from Johan Hus/John Wycliff

-Usually stamped out, Pope gave Henry VIII title of "DEFENDER OF THE FAITH" as reward

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (6)

Development of the Tudor State 1530-1536 (1):

-Changed government structure due to establishment of Royal Supremacy over Church (1534) mainly by Thomas Cromwell (rose ranks being Wolsey's servant, became member of Parliament in 1529 in order to limit Church power, 1531 inner ring of King's councillors pursuing divorce, 1532 Master of the King's Jewels, Lord Great Chamberlain/Earl of Essex 1540)

-As a lawyer able to create a state based on King-in-Parliament, enhanced the power of Parliament by imposing limitations on rule of Rex Solus (By King alone), royal Supremacy over Church, King now in charge of both bodies/souls of subjects,claiming King had power in Parliament they could make huge changes to the government

-Created a state based on an "inner Privy Council", organised departments of state that could rule, if necessary, without the direct intervention of the monarch

-1535 Cromwell was appointed Viceregent of Spirituals in order to manage Church assets, in 1536 he became Principal Secretary and put state machinery in place to consildate royal power

-G.R Elton: Revised view Break with Rome was to get rid of Catherine of Aragon, argues instead it was mainly result of Cromwell seeking to create a new soveriegn nation state

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (7)

Catholic:

-Believed in the 7 Sacraments: (Baptism, Conformation, Eucharist, Confession, Last Rites, Holy Orders, Marriage)

-Purgatory: move soul through more quickly via good works, monastic prayers and setting up a chantry where people pay for your soul

-Eucharist: Belief in TRANSUBSTANTIATION: wine and bread literally turns into blood and body of Jesus Christ

-Latin Bible, priest must translate for people

-Belief in importance of Saints/existence of miracles

-Statues/shrines/decorated churches, full vestaments/ornamental clothing for the clergy

-Pope is God's representative on earth

-Celibate Clergy: not allowed to marry and need to devote their lives to God


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Tudor State 1536-1553 (8)

Protestant:

-Belief in fewer sacraments for salvation (Eucharist, Baptism)

-English Bible, people can read it and understand it for themselves

-Do not need Pope/Archbishops/Bishops, people can find their own way to God, Church hierarchy unnecessary for this

-"Justification by Faith", faith alone saves you not "good works"

-Priests can marry because they are oridnary people

-No purgatory

-Private communication with God through prayer, do not need to go through a priest

-Eucharist service, no change in blood or wine

-Plain Church (no statues/idols of worhsip), no vestaments to be worn by clergy

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (9)

Development of the Tudor State 1530-1536 (2):

-Royal Supremacy passed over Church in 1534, accepted in 1536 -Thomas Cramner became Archbishop of Canterbury and took the lead in theological debates, it was Cromwell who was given the task of the shaping the new Church

-Cramner: came to court as Chaplain of Anne's father, and this connection along with moderately reformist ideas brought him to the attention of the King, actively sought Henry VIII's divorce from European scholars which led him to become Archbishop, his loyalty to Henry VIII protected him from the conservative backlash of 1540s, played a major role in reforming Church under Edward VI's reign, died a Protestant matyr in Mary I's reign

-Administratively little to change, divided between York and Cantenbury with Archbishop each, but primacy of Canterbury over York long established, each subdivided into a number of Dioceses governed by Bishop with help from his Dean/Chapter, King took over existing machinery and after monasteries were dissolved six new bishoprics were established in places like Oxford/Gloucester

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (10)

Dissolution of the Monasteries (1):

-When Henry VIII came to the throne in 1509 there were 850 religious houses in England and Wales, wealth was vast: owned 1/3 of the countries landed property and the 30 richest monasteries each recieved an income to that of the countries most powerful noble

-Got income from 2 sources: temporal (rents from agricultural land they owned) and spiritual (profit from the Parish priesthoods-benefices), often built up wealth from wills of property owners who hoped their generosity would lessen their time in purgatory

-First half of Henry VIII's reign it was popular exepctation that monasteries would keep going, 1520's Wolsey did dissolve 29 Religious houses to fund his own projects, but they were "deccaying" (not being used effectively) and all the proper paperwork/permission was granted

-January 1535 Cromwell intiated a full survey of Church property, the Valor Ecclesiasticus, followed by a visitation of all religious houses in September, these were carried out by unpaid commission groups of local gentry, and book is impressive often compared to Domesday

-Most work carried out by Thomas Legh and Richard Layton, called "evil counsellors" in Pilgrimage of Grace demands (1536)

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (11)

Dissolution of the Monasteries (2):

-Cromwell presents to Parliament an extensive dossier detailing "mainfest sin, vicious, carnal and adominable living" that characterised the smaller monasteries, and this led to him acquiring the Act for the Dissolution of Lesser Monasteries (1536) to transfer property to Crown -Gained financially from things like lead and silver from roofs, bronze from bells and saleable items (door hinges), most of the latter was taken to the Tower of London, the rest sold in auctions, property was rented out from the many requests of people living nearby

-However, violent reaction from the North and groups of royal commisioners were often stopped by mobs, thes emobs led directly to the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536, and once it was crushed Parliament passed the Act for the Dissolution of Greater Monasteries (1539), as larger monasteries were pressured into supporting the rebellion, punishment for treason, done in a piecemeal manner and by 1540 no religious houses existed anymore, Abbots who refused were executed by Henry VIII, most famous of these the Abbot of Glastonbury

-Secretarian Controversy conflict between Catholic/Protestant historians in how they interpret changes in Church, Catholics argue greedy King, Protestants argue monasteries had it coming

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (12)

Cromwell's Reforms:

-Presented as process of reform, financial gain for Henry VIII and Cromwell was clear, not only gained money through it be sold off land to gentry/nobility in order to give them a stake and create a loyal generation of nobility, succesfull as Mary I could not reverse it in her reign

-1536 Cromwell issued Ten Articles of Faith, incorporated distinctly Protestant ideas and reduced necessary sacraments from seven to three

-Followed with a set of injuntions in 1536, Bishop's Book in 1537 and another set of injunctions in 1538 attacking superstitious practices and encouraging dismnatling of shrines/statues

-1537 ordered English translation of Bible, 1538 royal proclamation put one in every Parish Church

-Measures were distinctly Protestant, believed in salvation by faith so laity meant to read Bible to find God and Clergy role was to guide them in reading (believed Bible not Pope source of all knowledge), monasteries also encouraged loyalty to authorities outside England, whole purpose of monasteries conflicted with Protestant ideas of "Justification by faith", regardless of Cromwell's reason introduction of Protestant ideas maintained/justified Break with Rome

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (13)

Opposition to Reforms 1532-1538:

-Henry VIII and Cromwell knew actions were going to be unpopular, took action to put appropriate legislation in place so all steps taken were legally defensible, traditional way of dealing with traitors was Act of Attainder passed by Parliament, Cromwell saw this as clumsy and fixed it by passing Treason Act 1534, which meant anyone who disapproved of anything the King did could be killed, clauses added meant population had to swear oath

-John Fisher (Bishop of Rocester) was in an Act of Attainder with the Holy Maid of Kent in 1533, but he was allowed to purchase his freedom, refused to swear an oath accepting the divorce and was executed in 1535 for his resistence even though Pope made him a Cardinal

-Sir Thomas More had been close friend/Lord Chancellor, led eradication of Protestants, disagreed in principle with King's attack on the Church however but was allowed to resign in 1532, tried to make him swear an oath to accept changes but refused, executed in 1535

-Observant Franciscan Friars seven houses nationwide were closed down and their members forced out of public view and some were imprisoned, 18 Carthusians over 3 years were either executed or starved to death, and finally the monatery was dissolved in 1539, judicinal murder by Henry VIII stopped resistence from the majority of the populas

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (14)

Role/Influence of King (1):

-Henry VIII slowed change down in 1539 in order to define the beliefs he wanted to characterise his Church. threat of Catholic invasion from Spain led him to curb Protestantism and show essential orthodoxy of religion

-May 1539, Committee of Bishops established six statements of doctrine, King intervened to make this the Act of Six Articles, restored Catholic doctrines like transubstantation, clerical celibacy and confession to a priest, set out harsh punishments for heresy, Act resulted in the resignation of two reforming Bishops Shaxton and Latimer

-King's Book licensed 1543 to replace Bishop's Book of 1536, interpreted the Creed, Seven Sacraments, Lord's Prayer and 10 Commandments as they had been set out in the Six Articles

-1543 Act for Advancement of True Religion passed, restricted Bible reading to clerics, nobility, gentry, women and lower orders banned from reading although noble women could in private, probably reflected fear of Bible debate like had been taking place in Germany

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (15)

Role/Influence of King (2):

-Arguably shows Henry VIII regretted how far reformation had gone, Chrisopher Haigh argues that after Cromwell's fall reformation seemed not only stoppable but reversible, historians however disagree with this, pointing to his more moderate Catholic reforms and his rejection of conservative demands suggests he wanted unity as well as uniformity, 1538 Henry VIII denied the "real" presence of Mass at the Trial of John Lambert

-Act of Six Articles defined as "expedient" rather than "Law of God", and dismantling of shrines still contiuned, heresy laws only meant that 3-time offenders would be burnt

-1545 Act of the Dissolution of Chantries contiuation of dissolution of monasteries and indication that saying masses for the dead were no longer a key element of faith, few chantries closed under Henry VIII's reign but 2374 chantries were under Edward VI's reign

-Difficult to argue reformation had been reversed, Royal Supremacy taught through vernacular (native langauge) tex-book clearly present in Henry's later reforms

-Henry VIII's death had Church led by King with doctrines defined in Parliament, but links with Rome authority had been destroyed, and debate over doctrine was rife in England

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (16)

Evolution of Central Government 1536-1553 (1):

-1560s scholar Sir Thomas Smith defined the essentials of English government that were recognisable before 1536 

-King distributes his authority in 5 ways (In making laws, making battle and peace with foreign nations, providing money for himself/maintenance against enemies, in choosing an election of chief offices/magistrates and in the administration of justice) 1st and 3rd done by Parliament, 2nd and 4th done by the King himself and the 5th by the Great Assize

-Geoffrey Elton: argues that Cromwell instutionalized these responsilbities by increasing Parliament power, increasing royal control in localities and transferring central administration from the King's household to an executive royal council which could act without the active participation of the monarch if necessary

-King responsible for financing his own government, no disinction between cost of government and King's personal expenditure

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (17)

Evolution of Central Government 1536-1553 (2):

-King was expected to cover costs of Administration, Law and Order, Defence and Personal Expenditure

-Recognised in times of war the King's private income would not cover all defence needs, and was therefore able to obtain grants of taxation through Parliament and these consisted of the right to levy customs duties for life at the beginning of the monarch's reign, and the subsidy (income-type tax) was at Parliament's disposal each occasion, although it was not as forthcoming in peacetime

-Monarch's income of around £100,000 a year came from various sources:

1. Rents from Crown Lands (Royal estates in 1509 worth £42,000)

2. Fines from justice

3. Custom duties (import/export)

4. Feudal payments (Court of Wards, "wardship)

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (18)

Henry's Government 1509-1547 (1):

-Traditionally royal income went to Exchequer, but this was slow/inefficient, from late 15th century revenue was increasingly paid into Royal Household/Chamber, Henry VIII lacked his father's interest in administration and tended to delegate to his personal servants (like Groom of the Stool who looked after Pirvy Purse), consequently Gentleman of the Bedchamber wielded a lot of power

-1532 Cromwell took over Government finance, and as Chancellor of Exchequer/Master of the Rolls from 1533 oversaw financial arrangements needed for the Reformation, 1534 passed the Act of First Fruits and Tenths transeferred clerical taxes from Pope to King and he set up a court to manage the revenue, 1536 Cromwell established Court of Augmentations to handle income from monasteries land, Court of General Surveyors made permenant with it's own clerical staff

-Cromwell did not run these but ensured they followed effective collecting/accounting measures, so Court of Augmentation became a model for future courts, 1540 Court of Wards set up on similar lines set up along similar lines, along with the Court of First Fruits and Tenths in 1541 and the Court of General Surveyors in 1542, 1530s Cromwell reorganised/improved finaicial administration while Chambers contiuted to be significant in managing King's finances

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (19)

Henry's Government 1509-1547 (2):

-David Loades argues that Cromwell kept the Exchequer, while appointing men suited for different purposes to make it more efficient, and refers to the Court of Augmentations in particular as a "...small empire, with nationwide ramifications", Cromwell's purpose trying to create effective financial stability for the government

-Henry VIII inherited financial surplus from father but spent it rapidaly,military expenditure had to increase in 1534 with fear of Catholic invasion, such as on the Navy, new fortifications along the Channel Coast and the appointments of Lord-Lieutenants in 1539 (county nobility deputised by the King to organise local defence against invasion)

-Parliament in 1530s willing to grant subsidies, but seizure of Crown lands was best source of revenue, first few years after monasteries closed over a million pounds new income came in, spent on defence, but most went to royal coffers, spent all on war though (Battle of Solway Moss 1542 and £2 million to capture Boulogne 1543-1546, pay for these Henry VIII got £65,000 subsidies from Parliament and around £800,000 from monastic lands, attempted to strengthen stock of buillion by debasement but this led to inflation, by his death in 1547 1/2 of monastery land was sold off, gold/siver coinage content fell by 50% and he owed £100,000 to bankers

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (20)

Somerset's Government 1547-1549:

-Somerset continued anti-Scottish policy, plunging England into further debt

-Ordered further debasements, led to further inflation, and this led to popular unrest like the Western Rebellion and Kett's Rebellion that cost money to put down

-Somerset pursued law that had been enacted to close chantries, only brought in about £160,000 which was around 20% of the sum brought in by the dissolution of the monasteries

-By Somerset's fall in 1549, chance of any financial stability in England had disappeared

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Tudor State 1536-1553 (21)

Northumberland's Government 1550-1553:

-Serious efforts made to return to solvency, peace made with France and Scotland, endede the pratice of debasement although coinage levels would not return to normal until Elizabeth 1st

-Raised government revenue in traditional ways like selling crown lands, confiscating lead, coining bullion from Church plate and seizing Episcopal lands, but also was keen on collecting Crown debts, pruning government expenses and instituting regular audits

-1552 appointed a Royal Commission to investigate the work of the revenue courts in order to cut costs, range of courts were gradually abolished from this and by 1558 only Court of Wards and the Duchy of Lancaster remained independent

-Not a reversion to the old ways though, Sir William Paulet (who worked with Cromwell) simply combined all these courts into the Exchequer, able to rule as a single financial authority while also using new methods of adminsitration

-Shows that Cromwell clearly laid groundwork for later administration, and people who had worked alongside him became the new generation of administrators at Tudor Court

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Changes in financial administration 1536-1553 (1):

1. Court of Chancery: recorded and sent out King's decisions in "legal writs" and resolved any related disputes, David Loades argue sit dealt with every process leading to the Great or Privy Seal and for the authentication of the judicial process, it remained largely unchanged

2. Royal Office Holders: appointed by King, in charge of managing day-to-day various government departments, main offices in 1536 were Lord Chancellor/Lord Treasurer in charge of Courts of Chancery/Exhequer, but numerous other posts carried responsibility for financial/legal matters (Master of the Rolls), other fulfilled functions that spanned both royal household/affairs of the state e.g Lord Chamberlain (officer in charge of public appearences of the King) and the Lord Privy Seal (private correspondence on behalf of the King, sealing it with a private seal to show the validity of the document), number of Houshold Offices like Groom of the Stool could also take responsibilities of State, and King could devise new posts to fill certain needs, like Viceregent In Spirituals for Cromwell

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Changes in financial administration 1536-1553 (2):

3. The Royal Council: Main role was to advise King, but also consisted of major offices holders such as higher clergy, judges and greater nobility, Council exceeded 50 at times to represent all interests but only a small number actually needed to make it work, Councellors could be engaged with work in Prerogative Courts of Star Chamber/Court of Requests/Regional Council without attending the King, membership of Council indicated status not power or influence

-Such arrangements led to factional rivarly and relied on the character of the monarch to make it work, Henry VIII delegated most tasks to Wolsey until his fall in 1529, then Duke of Norfolk hoped that terrortorial nobility would take over this role, Henry VIII instead established "Council Attendent" (small inner ring who he sought advice over divorce, and Cromwell began his rise here), Cromwell made the administration more efficient/independent by creating a small Privy Council of 19 members, 1539 Act of Precedence defined the number/senority of office-holder in Privy Council/Parliament, which Cromwell controlled until 1540 when after that ceased to be an inner circle but instead it's own council with staff

-When Edward VI came to power Duke of Somerset became Lord Protector through Privy Council contacts, however he tended to bypass them and this likely led to his downfall, Northumberland rose to power through this group by allying himself with various different interests, 1550 appointed 12 new councillors (33 members) and appointed them as Lord-Lieutenants in their own regions, Privy Council important in Mary 1st/ Elizabeth 1st reign as could not use their own household staffed by women, Mary 1st increased membership to 43 and it continued it administrative role, Elizabeth 1st reduced number back to 13-19, and rise of Sir Francis Walshingham made more of a centre of government intelligence/information

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Role of Cromwell (1): Geoffrey Elton argues Cromwell responsible for creation of Privy Council, by his own example laid foundations of the Secretary of State which was to emerge in Elizabeth 1st's reign, advocated a "Tudor Revolution Thesis" between 1532-1540 that happened to Cromwell's rule as a minister, seen by shift from medieval to modern forms of government:

1. Structure and organisation of central government: administrative revolution responsible for radical change in central government like reorganising financial departments and creating the Privy Council "Government by King replaced with Government under King"

2. Role of Parliament and the scope of authority of Statute Law: Essential to revolution was the creation o a soveriegn law-making Parliament, used to create the reformation as nothing lay outside statue law "King and the Parliament replaced by King-In-Parliament"

3. Relationship between Church and State: Church came fully under control of royal power, balance of power between Church and State now belonged to the State "Church and State was replaced by Church in State"

4. Extension of royal authority in regions: brought outlying regions under control of central government, Cromwell gave more authority Council of the North and reformed the Council of Wales and the Marches "Fragmented policy was replaced by a unitary state"

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Role of Cromwell (2):

-All this present in his creation of the Privy Council, remodelling the King's finances, methods of containing opposition while the revolution took place, attempts to introduce economic/social reform, creation of King-In-Parliament as supreme authority and destruction of Church position in the State, HOWEVER many disagree with his thesis because he uses the word "revolution", important to anaylse different areas in order to understand how important Cromwell was:

1. Finance: Court of Exchequer/Duchy of Lancaster long-established state departments that handled income from sherrifs/customs as well as handling extensive wealth that had come to the Crown from the House of Lancaster, Duchy was model for new courts like Court of First Fruit and Tenths/Court of Augmentations that dealt with Church wealth coming to the King

2. Privy Council: medieval system of a large council (70-90 members) replaced by more formal Privy Council (20 trusted members) and assumed day-to-day running of government, large council often meant 1 or 2 members got most power, this was shift to a more organised bureacratic group, small size+eminence allowed it to run effectively even during crises such as the Pilgramage of Grace, and even during royal minority of Edward VI

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Role of Cromwell (3):

3. Parliament/Church and State: Cromwell paved the way for the government to take control the Church and even the method to do so: King-In-Parliament, by establishing King as the Head-of-State and as the supreme power in Parliament, affected revolution in these ways

4. Extension of royal authority: success for Cromwell in this field was limited, had to rely largely on unpaid local gentry acting as JP's and on willingness of powerful noble landowners/influential clerics who filled the offices of President of the Regional Councils of the North/West/Wales, fact that some nobility joined the Pilgrimage of Grace shows precarious this policy was

-Historian David Loades supports Elton, argued Cromwell's office became a clearing house for business, which he and his staff redirected to the appropriate departments and that he had a network of spies at home/abroad, Cromwell's system was a personal creation and when he became Lord Privy Seal the system moved with him, utilised oppurtunities provided by positions he held but did not pass it on to his sucessors (role of Viceregent in Spirtuals abolished and split between two supporters), built a network of support in the Royal Household/Privy Council, Loades argued Cromwell created a precedent for organising business, as while it was not followed directly after his fall, Walshingham/Cecil can trace their rules back to his methods

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Role of Cromwell (4):

-David Starkey disagress with Elton, argues that there was a shift from medieval to modern forms of government in Tudor times but not because of some grand Cromweillan plan, believes change was a result of Cromwell's reactions to conflict between court factions, for example Cromwell weakened the influence of the King's Chamber because he could not control it, this was clearly practical politics, not a preconcieved plan for reform

-Servini argues Privy Council was a long-standing ideal which was created by the Pilgrimage of Grace, but stopped by Cromwell until 1540 who wanted to maintain control and thus prevented any further instutitional development, Hoak supports this idea by agruing that the Privy Council was made as a response to the Pilgrimage of Grace, and after this disappeared again and was revied in the rule of Northumberland

-John Guy argues that an executive council existed within 1536, but Cromwell desire to keep government business in his own hands meant it played a lesser role, political environment of 1530s required an inner ring to deal with problems, Cromwell made this council happen and make government more effective but at the cost of him maintaing control over it, like Wolsey dealt with the King's "natural advisers" and made the council dependent on himself

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Role of Cramner:

-Born 1489 and climbed his way in the world until he was a member of staff at Cainbridge university, became a member of the Boleyn faction in 1529 being Anne's Chaplain, and upon the deathn of Archbishop Warham was asked to become the new Archbishop of Canterbury

-Henry VIII liked Cramner, and the fact that unlike Wolsey/Cromwell had no ulterior motives/ objectives, however Cramner not a yes-man, proven by his written response to Henry VIII's 200 amendments made to Bishop Book, in which Cramner both refuted his points and also corrected his grammer, distinguished his own beliefs from the duty to serve the King, meaning in the later half of Henry VIII's reign Cramner was executing people whose beliefs were the same as him

-Supported Cromwell's move towards Protestantism in 1537-1538, and pursued a similar policy when invited to do by the King in 1543, and after Cromwell's execution who appeared at the most-modest reformer and survived the plot against him in 1543, after Henry VIII's death in 1547 Cramner issued Book of Homilies followed by Book of Common Prayer in 1549, this was considered too radical for conservatives (led to Western Rebellion) but not far enough for reformers, made Second Book of Prayer in 1552 which was anti-catholic, and later adapted by the Elizabethan regime and to become the standard work of an increasingly Protestant clergy

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Government in the Localities 1536-1553 (1):

-Most people experienced government through "Great Assize" (local institutions/administration of justice), Common Law Courts of the King's Bench and Common Pleas based in London but went on circuit in county assizes, and were supported by Local Quarter Sessions conducted by JP's, traditional keeper of law (sheriff) being replaced by JP's, unpaid role but brought local statues/influence so many lesser nobility/local gentry sought this

-JP's dealt with petty crime, serious offences transferred to assizes for trial by judge and jury, operated from laws derived from custom/statue law, allowed them to deal with new issues like vagrancy, JP's supervised by Council which compiled lists for each county of those granted the King's commission, functions of commissions were both judicial/administrative, and the number of special commissions appointed to deal with items like goal delivery/sewer/enquries into key issues led to the general belief that government intereference in local affairs was increasing

-Although King governed the whole kingdom in 1536 there was a variation across different regions, largely due to existence of Liberties and Franchises (special privelage granted by monarch to allow individuals/institutions to control regional legal system, helped maintain control but acted as a barrier to royal law/King' authority) and remote border lands where King's authority had never been sufficient to maintain peace and protect area from foriegn invasion

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Government in the Localities 1536-1553 (2):

1. The North Marches: Northumberland/Cumberland/Liberty of Redesdale made up Northern Marches on the border of Scotland, each March had a Warden responsible for law enforcement/defence, control of East and Middle March given to Earl of Northumberland (Percy family) and Warden of West March usually a Dacre/Neville, Percy Estates extended into Durham and North Yorkshire, dominant family in Lancashire were the Stanleys (Earls of Derby) while George Talbot (Earl of Shrewbury) had extensive lands around Sheffield, Henry VIII added to these families in 1525 when he made his friend Henry Clifford Earl of Cumberland

2. Principality of Wales

3. Welsh Marches: Patchwork of local lordships gradually taken over by royal control, last of the greater lords the Duke of Buckingham, was executed in 1521

4. The South-West: Duchy of Cornwall controlled by Crown, other main landholders were the Courtenays, Earls of Devon and Marquis of Exeter

5. East-Anglia: Dominated by Howards, Dukes of Norfolk and Earls of Surrey

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Government in the Localities 1536-1553 (3):

-Cromwell from early 1536 began to take steps to establish a uniform law in the country, act of Parliament allowed Crown control of Liberties and Franchises and deprive Lords of jurisdiction in criminal cases, attempts had already been made to strengthen Councils of North and Wales without great success, Henry VIII's efforts to extend royal authority in Northern Marches by appointing the Earl of Westmorland/Cumberland to work alongside the Percys and Dacres was met with such fierce resistence he was forced to back down, local loyalty remained strong

-Developments in Wales: Rowland Lee (Bishop of Lichfield/Coventry) appointed president of Welsh Marches in 1534 and hung 5000 criminals in order to try end lawlesness, Cromwell realised this was not a long-term solution and appointed JP's in the principality of Wales, and this was followed by Act for Laws and Justice, to be ministered in Wales in like Form as it is in this Realm in 1536 which extended the legal system to Wales, followed by Second Act of Union in 1543 which divided Wales into counties and established sheriffs/JP's throughout them, Regional Council was reorganised to direct and supervise government in Wales as well as surronding counties, Council was responsible for publishing royal procalmations and transmitting order (translated if necessary), success of these measures can be seen through lack of unrest from Wales in the rest of the Tudor century


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Government in the Localities 1536-1553 (4):

-Developments in the North (1): Most difficult area, where scottish hostility, conservative communities and local magnates posed a serious problem for royal authority, defence of the border required significant military presence and experience had proved that this needed local co-operation from magnates who oppossed the religious/political changes of Henry VIII

-132-1534 Lord Dacre and Northumberland were able to hold back Scottish attacks on the West March, but neither were reliable and this was dealt with: Dacre was accused of treason and later pardoned but was dismissed and heavily fined because of his Scottish contacts, Henry Percy was in debt and childless, so government forced him to name the King as his heir in 1536 and gain control of the vast Percy estates, and this had been done before to Welsh Marcher Lordships but in the North this caused great outrage and likely contributed to the Pilgrimage of Grace, however the rebellion failure and subsuqent crushing by Norfolk in 1537 opened up a way of dealing with it

-Danger of rebellion clearly showed need for social/political authority to be upheld in this place, and the death of Henry Percy and his estates going to Crown provided an oppurtunity for reorganisation of local government in the North

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Government in the Localities 1536-1553 (5):

-Devlopments in the North (2): 1537 Cuthbert Tunstall (Bishop of Durham) was appointed as Lord President of the Council of the North, Servini argued this meant the north was no longer controlled by a magnate assisted by council, but by a permenant bureacratic council

-New council was made the supreme executive authority of all counties north of the River Trent, save for the Duchy of Lancaster, Earldom of Northumberland was defunct and old liberties were already incorporated into shires, more importantly council was responsible for organising local government in Church and State and became active in doing so, ensuring northern bishops implemented Crown's religions policies, monitoring the work of JP's and acted as an efficient court of equity based in York, and some attempts were made to address social/economic issues such as that of enclosure

-Resenment of change did not vanish, and further attempt of rebellion took place with the Wakefield Plot of 1541 (small group of conservative clergy/gentry in Wakefiled planned to murder Archbishop Holgate and seize Pontefract Castle), however the conspirators failed to gain support and were quickly rounded up, 15 executed and 50 others fined, then the North reamined quiet until 1568


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Crown, Nobility and Gentry-service and reward (1):

-Despite Cromwell's changes to the administration, the relationship between the King and the Knightly Estates was beginning to change, without a police force/standing army co-operation between royal power and gentry/nobility was crucial, and the King made it clear that the route to power and privelage lay through service to the King and obedience to his will

-Henry VII set the trend, Stanley family fought on his side at the Battle of Bosworth and victory granted the ttiel Earl of Derby, however Howard family fought against Tudors and their defeat led to their lands/title taken off them by the crown, however the title of Norfolk was restored to the Howards in 1514 when the Duke of Norfolk's (that one!) father defende the North and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden

-Prominent Gentry in Henry VIII's reign: Charles Brandon, Thomas Boleyn, Edward Seymour, William Parr, Henry Clifford (Earl of Cumberland), Thomas Cromwell (Earl of Essex), John Dudley (Viscount Lisle), William Paulet (Lord St. John), impact of these policies seen as new men (Clifford, Brandon, Norfolk) helped to supress Pilgrimage of Grace, and in addition it was not difficult to find regional nobility/gentry to serve on councils on north/wales, even individuals who had supported the rebellion wanted this, likely because of danger of popular unrest/benefit of royal service

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Crown, Nobility and Gentry-service and reward (2):

-Courtenays: 1538 Cromwell mounted an attack on the leading family in the south-west, culminated in the execution of Henry Courtenay (Marquis of Exeter) and also Sir Edward Neville and Sir Nicholas Carew, Privy Council members who like Exeter held estates in Devon and Cornwall, they supported Aragon but remained loyal to the King while other rebelled in 1536, arests were probably ordered by Henry himself because of their association and family links with Reginald Pole (Cardinal who had a Yorkist claim to the throne, very pro-catholic and opposed Henry VIII in every way), and such associations were too dangerous to overlook in Exeter, who had a territorial base of power from which a challenge to the Crown could be launched

-Howards: 1547 Norfolk fell a similar fate, as despite loyal service and willingness to condemen his two nieces to death (Anne and Catherine) his son Earl of Surrey brought their downfall by claiming (after being defeated in France) that as the premier nobility in England the Howards should take control of Edward VI and act as regents, and these rash claims angered Henry VIII who believed Norfolk had made him needlessly sacrifice Cromwell in 1540, both Norfolk and Surrey arrested in 1546, and Surrey was executed in 1547, and Norfolk only survived because Henry VIII died before signing the death warrant, Norfolk stripped of lands/title and remained in prison until 1553 when it was restored by Mary Ist

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Crown, Nobility and Gentry-service and reward (2):

-By 1547 Henry VIII had changed the balance betwen nobility and the King, as while factional rivarly did not stop it now had to operate within the boundaries of the King as they competed for royal favour, it remained easier and more effective to govern with, rather than against, noble influence, as while much local administration was carried out by gentry/lawyers with help from the Church, great benefit from having a local leader with the oversight to bring different offices together

-North/Welsh Marches Regional councils fulfilled this role, but elsewhere there was a lack of formal arrangements and a powerful local figurehead was particualry useful, especially for times of local defence/emergency, and Henry VIII established a Council of the West on this basis in 1539 when there was a fear of French invasion (counties of Devon/Cornwall vunerable to attack, and Cornwall was often known for it's unrest)

-At the same time a number of Lord-Lieutenants were appointed in the West and elsewhere, while the post of Vice-Admiral with jursidiction over local shipping in the area had been created in 1536, Council/Lord-Lieutenant posts allowed to laps in 1540s but Vice-Admirals continued, and these posts were often occupied by gentry rather than nobility but Henry VIII still sought reliable nobleman in order to strengthen his authority

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Crown, Nobility and Gentry-service and reward (4):

-Lord John Russell (later Earl of Bedford) was appointed President of the Council of the West in 1539, and from this time the family's influence in the south-west began to develop, replacing the Courtenay connection

-1545 Russell was given a special commission of array to manage defence in Cornwall/Devon/Somerset/Dorset, and after he managed to supress the Western Rebellion in 1549, he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of all four counties, and this was done throughout southern England in 1549 was faced with widespread unrest in the Western/Kett's Rebellion

-A series of Lord-Lieutenant appointments were made in 1549 and 1550, although some of these lapsed afterwards, a more systematic approach was gradually adopted, and it was from this time Lord-Lieutenants were established all over the country

-System did not develop fully until the 1580s, but by 1553 a start had been made in the creation of an effective national system of civil/military administration, staffed by the political/social elite under the close supervision of the monarch and the Privy Council


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Government and Faction 1539-1553 (1)

An ageing King:

-Henry VIII died in January 1547 after being seriously ill for a decade, number of medical issues may have complicated his reign and therefore affected his character:

1. Jousting accident led to a leg that never healed and kept getting infected, extremely painful and often brought on fevers making him incapicated from ruling

2. Inability to indulge in sports of his youth, along with his huge weight (50 inch waistline)

3. Had a series of disappointments with his marriages

4. Had a series of disappointments with his ministers

5. Had achieved limited success in forgien glory, humiliating for a 16th century King

-Last years of reign was a recurring crises in government as he kept overreacting to things, typified by his stints black despair and unrealistic optimism, despite these revisionists argues there was no crises in government and Henry VIII managed to maintain control

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Why did Cromwell fall from power-background of factions:

-Conservative Faction: Led by the Duke of Norfolk and Bishop of Winchester Stephen Gardiner, they opposed the rise of the "New Man" and believed nobility should take premier of advising the Crown, accepted royal supremacy but believed Cromwell's reform had gone too far

-Reformist Faction: Led by Cromwell and Cramner, regarded the royal supremacy as a starting point, wanted to develop church practices so that there was a greater emphasis on the authority of scripture/need for preaching

The Trial and Execution of John Lambert (1538):

-Lambert accused of denying the real presence of Christ in a sermon Gardiner delivered, arrested and charged with heresy at a trial Henry VIII attended, this exposed the weakness of the Reformist faction, as Cramner's defence was weak and Henry VIII pronounced Lambert condemned by his own words and burnt at the stake in 1538

-Henry VIII allowed many Protestant reforms in the 1530s, but now showed a clear preference for orthodox Catholic views in his role in the trial,followed by a proclamation confirming transubstantiation and clerical celibacy, Cramner sent his wife away to protect his position

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Importance/Aftermath of the Act of Six Articles:

-In 1539 Henry VIII intended to pass a Bill through Parliament that would establish uniformity to religion and stop experimentation, Cromwell was made chairman of this committee but was too weak to temper Henry VIII, and Norfolk and Gardiner were also on the committee to ensure orhodoxy was restored, Norfolk personally steered this Act through commons and had it passed

-Reuslt of 1539 Committee was Act of Six Articles, reasserted the royal supremacy and confirmed transubstantation, enforced communion of both kinds and outlawed clerical marriage, punishment for denying Christ in the Eucharist was now automatic burning with no retraction allowed

-Act demonstrated to Conservatives that Henry VIII had returned to a more traditional Catholic doctrinem and raised their hopes that the time was ripe to launch an attack on Cromwell

-After this Act it looked as though Cromwell had regained some power from the Act of Precedence, allowed him as Viceregent of Spirituals was given precedenc over his peers in the realm, and managed to pressure the King to make him the Earl of Essex, but this same Act also elevated many great office holders, and he was now outnumbered in the council

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The Cleves Marriage and the Rise of Catherine Howard:

-Cromwell in 1530s focused on alliance with German Protestant Cleves fmaily to counter threat of Catholic King of France and Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V), alliance achieved by marrying Duke's sister Anne in 1540, but by mid 1540s this was no longer needed because of development in the Habsburg-Valois conflict (series of wars between Charles V of Habsburg family and Francis I of the Valois family between 1521-1559)

-Charles V: Holy Roman Empire was a collection of states encompassing Austria, much of Modern Germany and Eastern Europe, made him a powerful and also King of Spain, also Catherine of Aragon's Nephew and therefore had vested interest in England

-Norfolk had been acting as Henry VIII's envoy and entered talks with Francis I in breaking off peace with Charles V, Cleves marriage was unsuccesfull and Henry VIII did not like her appearance and refused to consumate the marriage, believed Cromwell had tricked him with threats of war and flattering portraits, Henry VIII quickly, became infatuated with Catherine Howard (niece of Norfolk who he had brought to court, which he intended to gain influence again as he had during his other niece Anne Boleyn's marriage) and tried to end marriage with Anne as quick as possible, and Cromwell tried to get an annulment but it was very difficult

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Arrest and Execution of Cromwell:

-It looked as though the only was to get an alliance with Francis I was to get rid of Cromwell, and Norfolk took this oppurtunity, Norfolk took advantage of Cromwell's weakness and accused him of heresy and of supporting the Sacrementarians (Christians who denied the presence of Christ in Eucharist) in Calais, Cromwell was associated with other people who had been burnt and this was the final nail in his coffin effectively

-Cromwell was arrested in 1540, and was convicted by an Act of Attainder that was steered through Lords by Norfolk, and he executed by a botched beheading chosen by Henry VIII in order to get revenge in 1540, but he presented all the evidence needed to get an annulment from Anne of Cleves before he died

Victory of the Conservative Faction:

-1540 Reformist faction was weakened by Cromwell's execution, Cramner had no political ambitions an dould not fill his shoes, instead faction taken over by Edward Seymour (Somerset), after Lambert's trial Conservatives took the initiative (Surrey and Russell able to promote themselves at the expense of Cromwell/Cramner now isolated from the council), Cromwell's execution marked the high point for Conservatives, soon to go the other way

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Fall of Catherine Howard 1542:

-Key player in Norfolk's scheme to destroy Cromwell, Henry VIII and her were married on the same day as Cromwell's exeuction, however Norfolk's hopes were dashed when Catherine possessed no political skills to manipulate him and had little interest in him either because of his age/appeaence, instead she liked to dance and flirt with others, evidence of her "indiscretions" were gathered by the Reformist Faction and presented to the Kind by Cramner, and Henry VIII felt as though he had been made to look a fool

-Her indiscretions: Henry Manox a lute player when she age 15, Francis Dereham who she may have married and if so they were legally binding in the eyes of the Church, when she became Queen she promoted him as her private secretary, Thomas Culpepper implicated by Dereham, one of Henry's favourites in the Privy Chamber,

-Their fates: Catherine and her "minder" Lady Rochford executed in 1542, Dereham and Culpepper executed in 1541

-Norfolk's fate: Disowned niece and declared himself outraged by her behaviour, Duchess of Norfolk and William Howard lost lands and imprisoned, Norfolk and Surrey left court until Henry calmed down, Conservatives weakened and left Privy Council under control of erratic monarch

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The struggle for control 1543-1546:

-Estimates of how many people Henry VIII executed vary; English Chronicler Raphael Holindshead who died in 1580 claimed 78,000 people, more recently Robert Hutchinson using evidence from reports sasy 150,000, a shocking amount for a country of 2 million people in 1520, evidence supports that Henry was a tryannical leader, and at beats sympathetic historians would claim he suffered from a series of disappointments in his marriages, factions and illness,in the last 3 years of Henry's reign the struggle of factions increased, and as A.G.R Smith argues Henry had "at best" only "partial control" of the "court intrigues", but there were a number of ways Henry was in control:

1. After Catherine's exeuction Henry sought victory in foriegn wars, led his own army of 48,000 men against French in 1544, did not honour Charles V joint-attack plan and laid siege to Boulogne and captured it, total cost of foriegn affairs in 1540s exceeded 2 million pounds

2. Funded campaign using money from monatsic lands, and also debasement of coingage

3. His choice to end relgious experimentation with the Act of Six Articles, reinforced this with King's Book and Act for the Advancement of True Religion (1543)

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Marriage to Catherine Parr:

-Widowed twice and previous husband had been much older than her, in choosing her Henry found someone who would look after him, married him in 1543 which alarmed Conservatives because of her reformist views

-Catherine was close to Seymours and introduced reformist scholars to court and more significantly into the education of Elizabeth/Edward, and it was the advantage that Catherine gave to the Reformists that made the Conservatives carry out two plots

Plot against Cramner 1543:

-Development of religion among traditional lines gave Conservatives the chance to accuse Cramner as a tratior, and collected evidence of his promoting reformers/encouraging preaching, evidence presented to Henry who said he should be seized at the council table and sent to the Tower, however, when Council turned on Cramner he produced a ring that meant Henry gave him support/put him in charge of the investigation, Henry also reprimanded Gardiner/supporters

-Clear level of spite towards conservatives through betrayal, J.J Scarisbrick argues Henry now learned about his servants because of the fall of Cromwell and wanted to mess with them, but this was dangerous as it meant that he no longer stamped out conspiracies immediately

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Plot against Catherine Parr (1546):

-Failing to remove Cramner, turned their attention instead to Catherine Parr whose influence on the King and Reformist view were a dangerous combination

-Gardiner was sent to the King to gather alert the King of Catherine's view and offer to gather evidence on her for him, Henry agreed and placed Lord Chancellor Thomas Wriothesley in charge of this investigation

-However Henry alerted Catherine to the danger, and she threw herself on his mercy and promised to be guided by him in matters of religion

-However when Wriothesley arrived with 40 men to arrest the Queen, he was given a dressing down and thrown out of the chamber as a "knave"

-Many argue this was ploy by Henry to weaken the Conservative faction and gain more control of his own government

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The role of key players (1546):

-Near the end of his reign Henry was influenced by reformist Catherine Parr and was close to his son Edward VI's reformist family, the Seymours-Edward Seymour (Hertford rather than Somerset at this point) had been succesfull in Henry's wars for him

-In 1546 Antony Denny (member of reformist faction) was appointed Chief Gentleman of the King's Privy Chambers, a position that had increasing significance as he spent more time in the King's chambers when he became iller, also given control of the dry stamp (Kings signature which could be stamped on to documents) which Henry often used when unable to sign documents

-1546 Gardiner refused a request to allow ecclastiacal land to help Henry define the royal estates more explicitly, found himself excluded from court because of this

-1546 Surrey suffered a defeat in France and Hertford was elevated to his supreme military role, kep voicing family heritage (Plantagenets)/bearing own family arms of Edward the Confessor, dangerous Henry was dying a leaving a minor to suceed him, Act of Attainder found Surrey Norfolk guilty of treason, Surrey executed 1547 but Norfolk lived because Henry died before being able to sign his execution but he still remained imprisoned and titleless until Mary's reign

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Henry and Government in his last years:

-Traditionally Henry in his last years was seen as attending government like Wolsey and Cromwell had, allows it to be maintained that Henry played factions off one another (divide and rule), new interpretation servants manipulated Henry as much as he did them, moreover because he was mostly concerned with foriegn policy giving servants scope of power in terms of government

-Sir Antony Denny: In charge of King's Privy Chamber, so had influence on the King as information on events came from Denny's intepretation, could also keep people from seeing the King

-Sir William Paget: Trusted by Henry/Somerset but not Northumberland because of his role in Somersets coup, however employed him for his talent as a minister, happened in Mary's reign too but fall out with Gardiner left him ignored in Mary's government, as Henry's Private Secretary was able to control the flow of written information that got to him, kept religious convictions to himself but was clearly a seeker of power, and Seymour giving him the best offer caused him to side with the plot to manipulate Henry's Will

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Henry's Last Will/Testament:

-Vital mechanism to secure the the success of the Seymour faction was Henry's will

Seems Paget drew up the first (uncontroversial) part of the King's will where it was witnessed and signed by the witnesses with plenty of space for it to be maniuplated

-Details about the Regency Council was added when Henry was close to death and could do nothing about it

-Without Norfolk/Gardiner they could create an entirely reformist council to look after Edward VI with Seymour able to exercise full monarchal power

-Denny with control of dry stamp meant that he could legalise it

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Religious Legacy of Henry VIII:

-Royal supremacy put Church under Crown control, but religious difference created factions within government, this continued throughout Edward VI's reign, royal favour swung between the two groups and this meant by 1547 the Church doctrine was comprise/inconsistent:

1. Catholic:  Eucharist clearly defined as transubstantation, only clergy could take communion with wine, Catholic rites of confirmation/marriage/holy orders reintroduced along with Eucharist/penance/baptism, laity still required to make confessions, English clergy could no longer marry, singing masses for the dead still allowed, paintings/statues still allowed in Churches, although they were not allowed to be worshipped

2. Protestant: Services still in Latin but Cramner's Prayes/Responses to Litany were in English, greater importance attached to Lord Prayer/Creed/10 Commandments, Great Bible of 1539 translated to English to replace Latin Bible and elite laity could read it unlike on the continent where only Catholic priests could interpret it, number of Holy Days that laity had to attend Church were reduced to 25 days, no monasteries in England since 1540 in their dissolution

-This ramshackle set of doctrines was held together by Henrician heresy laws/censorship!!!

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Henry's Foreign Policy (1):

-Historians divided over whether Henry wanted to unite English throne with Scottish one or go back to earlier claims of taking the French throne, consequently either argue he failed his aims as he destroyed his finacial success, or he succeded in increasing English influence as a major player

-Until 1530s English reformation soured Catholic relations, but these were renewed in 1542 with mutual fear over France, particualry for England because of Franco-Scottish alliance created in 1538 with marriage of James V of Scotland to Mary Guise

-1542 alliance was agreed to have an Anglo-Imperial invasion of France, Scotland replied by sending raids across borders and Henry sent army under Norfolk to Scotland, crushed in Battle of Solway Moss, James V died and now Mary Guise acted as regent for infant Mary, Queen of Scots

-Mary Guise forced to make peace by Treaty of Greenwich 1543, and had to agree to a marriage between Edward and Mary Queen of Scots, but this was soon rejected by Mary and the Scottish Catholic party

-1544-45 Henry sent Edward Seymour to do a "rough wooing"-ravage Scottish lowlands

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Henry's Foreign Policy (2):

-English army landed in France to support Charles V Imperial army, but was too small to do anything other than capture port of Boulogne

-However cost of this was hughe, by 1546 over 2 million spent (mainly finance from monastic land), Charles V left conflict and Henry had to make peace with the French at the Treaty of Campe, that agreed England should hold Boulogne for 8 years

-When Henry died in 1547, left behind an uncertatin situation with an uneasy peace with France and Scotland, now united in a Franco-Scottish alliance, whcih exposed England from the north and south

-Continental powers now interested if they could exploit Edward VI's minority, and if the English reformation would survive the death of Henry

-Paget speaking to Regency Council believed could not hold Calais, however Charles V threat due to Catholicism and so could not got to German Lutheran Princes because it was too dangerous, best goal is to maintain an alliance with Charles V and promote French-Spainish hostility

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Succession of Edward VI:

-Henry VIII's major concern besides foreign war was his succession since 1527, birth of Edward VI in 1537 seemed to safeguard the Tudor dyanasty, but his failing health meant that he would rule as minor for some years, Henry made a will in 1546 to replace previous succession acts, which meant if Edward died without an heir throne would pass to Mary, and if she died with no heirs than Elizabeth

-If Elizabeth could not produce heirs, then the throne would pass to Henry's niece Frances Grey, eldest daughter of Henry's sister Mary who had married Louis King of France and then Charles Brandon, and this clause meant that Mary Queen of Scots was unable to claim the throne, Mary descended from Henry's sister Margaret who married James VI of Scotland, hence the Protestant Grey family replacing the Catholic Stewart family in succession

-Although this replaced earlier acts of succession, the Acts of 1534/1536 which made Mary and Elizabeth illegitimate were not repealed, Henry to secure his Royal supremacy/succession of his son handed over power to the reformist Seymour faction, clearly more secure than the weak Catholic faction, and Edward's place was secured by their adjustments to the will by allowing a Protestant Regency Council of 16 to govern England until Edward's majority, land and titles to be rewarded to the members from the Howard family and all of them to have EQUAL POWER

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How did Edward Seymour rise to power:

-England's government was based on the rule of one person (a monarch) together with Council and Parliament, not a committee and therefore unlikely this system could have been workable, and moreover Seymour had great ambition and was determined to stamp his authority on government

-Seymour along with Paget (had custody of will) kept Henry's death a secret while they gathered supporters as leader of the Council, and in 1547 summoned members of nobility/higher clergy to the Tower of London to announce Henry's death and the fact that Seymour was made Lord Protector and leader of the Council, and was made Duke of Somerset with land/titles

-Somerset had been a brilliant military leader in Henry's reign and so his appointment was not entirely unwelcome, however factionalism was rife and even his own brother Thomas Seymour complained when he was not on the Regency Council and demanded the role of governership of the King's person, encouraged in this by John Dudley (future Duke of Northumberland)

-Able to placate him with postion of Lord Admiral, but their rivarly was not over, and Thomas continued scheming (finally arrested/executed in 1549 for allegedly pllaning to marry Elizabeth)

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What influence did Edward VI have on government:

-G.R Elton argues Edward had no part in his reign, his opinions were those of his advisers and his achievements were accomplished facts, view not fully supported by historians today, Edward VI was an annointed King could not afford to ignore him, shown in Somerset's fall, as soon as he withdrew his support from him his enemies destroyed him

-Edward kept a diary from 12+, and it showed he had a keen interest in foreign affairs, and as he grew older he made contacts among ambassadors and began using his own private secretaries, during Somerset's rule Edward was a mostly preoccupied with education and had no direct involement in politics, but as time went on he became more significant

-By 1551 Edward began to attend Council meetings, and the Council were impressed by his maturity that they declared he would reach his majority at 16 rather than 18

-In terms of Northumberland reign, important to remmber that Edward was not allowed to have much say in foreign affairs (seen as the domain of men) and the Council were under Northumberland's control, however the euthusiam with which Northumberland purused reform was influenced by Edward's desire to complete the Reformation

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What was the role of Somerset:

-Somerset not only influenced by position but also personality, wanted full authority-power came not from Parliament but from Letter of Patent (open letter from monarch granting certain rights/privelagges to an individual/company), which was issued in 1547 by Edward VI

-These granted him the power, but not title of the King (Quasi-royal), meant Somerset could rule almost independently, and it was not long before other members of the council complained about his authoritarian manner, and although Parliament called every year but 1551, Somerset ruled mostly by proclamation

-This had been used by Kings when it would later be ratified by Parliament, but what made Somerset different from preiovus rulers was the extent to which he used them, more than 70 years in the three years that he was in government, John Guy: uses "autocratic" to describe Somerset's rule

-Somerset also took control of the dry stamp, that the King's signature be countersigned by him and insisted on using his own servants for consultation, and it was this ultimately that destroyed him, as the ruling alone meant that all the failure between 1547-1549 for England was because of Somerset's singular arragonce and incompetance 

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How effectively did Somerset govern:

-New regime had to make 3 key decisions immediately:

1. Whether or not to continue the wars against France and Scotland

2. The question of religious reform

3. How to find more ways of raising revenue

-Country also faced serious socio-economic problems, rising population major cause of inflation due to food being in so high a demand so prices were pushed up, not only added to the cost of the administration but also threatened people's living standards when wages weren't increasing, als meant people were available for unemployment so led to an increase in vagrancy

-Main objective of domestic policy was the prevention of public disorder, continuation of the wars fro national prestige and to keep nobles on side, if they maintained war country would plunge into debt, but if they raised taxes they would be unpopular with the elite sections of society, also had to act on religious reform, as could lose reformerist support and a Catholic revival could happen, administration had no idea how to sovle economic problems so just had to blunder through it

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Law and Proclamations 1547-1548:

-When the government was established it called a Parliament and passed a new treason act, repealed the old heresey, treason and censorship laws and the Act of Six Articles

-This allowed people to talk freely of religion without fear of arrest and were now able to circulate Calvinist/Lutheran literature, can be interpreted as Somerset trying to gain popular support or the new regime asserting itself, most historians argue it was to clear the way for religious reform

Treason Act 1547 (1):

-Caused issues (encouraged widespread religious debates especially London, and these often lead to destroying Catholic symbols/images [Iconoclasms])

-Repealing of the old laws meant authorities now had less power to deal with this, and this udnermined the confidence of the ruling elite in Somerset's rule

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Treason Act 1547 (2):

-Also repealed the Proclamation Act of 1539, which stated that that royal proclamations should be obeyed as if they were laws of Parliament, providing they did not infringe on existing laws, this had been regarded with great fear as it allowed the monarch to rule without Parlaiment, but its repeal did not mean that more proclamations could not be used, and Somerset likley repealed this act to give himself more power to rule without Parlaiment, previous limitations no longer applying

-Under Henry VIII's reign proclamations were used 6 times a year, whereas Edward VI they averaged around 19 a year, and of those 77 were issued by Somerset himself, this was often used by a government who felt the need to react quickly to changing/dangerous circumstances, no evidence to suggest Privy Council and Parliament did not back him in this however

-New act punished the following with treason:

1. Saying King was not Supreme Head of the Church for the 3rd time/writing it for the 1st time

2. Attempting to deprive the King/successors from his title or saying someone else is King

3. Interrupting succession to the throne as laid down in the Succession Act of 1543

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The Chantries Act of 1547:

-Act could be seen as a religous reform, but used more to gather money to wage wars, commisioners were sent out in 1548 to vist Chantries and confiscate ladn/property and gold/silver attached to them, and the latter was melted down and made into coins

-Somerset also carried on debasement, and did so until 1551, at which point the copper content was 75% and the copper 25%, created further problems as by increasing the number of coins in circulation the government was adding to inflation, and prices (epsecially for grain) rose rapidly, and this fuelled more discontent amongst the poor, did not raise taxes to keep elites on side

The Vagrancy Act of 1547 and Social Policy (1):

-Poor Law of 1536 did recognise the able-bodied were having difficulty finding work, ordered parishes to help the impotent poor, 1547 was a savage attack on vagrants who the government saw as causing riots/sedition, under new law anyone out of work for three days was to be branded with a V and sold into slavery for two years, children of vagrants could be taken away and put into useful occupations, law widely unpopular and many county/urban authorities refused to enforce it, although proposed housing for diabled does not outweight it

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The Vagrancy Act of 1547 and Social Policy (2):

-Clear that the level of popular discontent was rising in the middle of 1548 because the Privy Council was forced to take measures to appease public agitation, A.F Pollard argues that Somerset was not driven by "selfish motives" but to achieve aims that were "essentially noble"

-Enclosures: Government blamed all economic problems on enclosures, as fencing off common land for sheep pasture and the consequent eviction of occupants was the major cause of inflation/unemployment, proclamations issued against enclosers/commissioners sent to deal with it but this just increased unrest, as the people hoped the government would take decisive action and they did not

-Elite groups were worried that authorities would prevent this form of estate improvement, and government placing a tax on wool increased these fears, so nobility often evaded the legislation which then fell on the poorer areas of society

-Government more concerned with preventing riots than helping the poor, supported by 3 proclamations issued in 1548 that; banned football because it could end in riots, seen as an offence to spread rumours and all unlawful assemblies were forbidden, punishments for breaking these was to be conscripted onto a royal galley for a period of time

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Somerset's foreign policy (1):

-Strongly influenced by Henry VIII's military situation he left behind, and also the aim of marrying Edward VI and Mary Queen of Scots, as this could secure the Scottish throne and prevent anyone from the Habsburg family of French securing the English throne through her lineage

Scotland and France (1):

-Somerset tried to isolate Scotland from France by negotiating a defensive alliance, but impossible due to the death of Francis I and replaced by more agressive Henry II, who renewed the Franco-Scottish alliance and in 1547 sent 4000 troops to Scotland, Somerset now had no alternative and needed to get the marriage between Edward VI and Mary Queen of Scots in place

-In 1547 a joint invasion land-naval invasion of Scotland by England took place, and they were able to crush the Scottish in the Battle of Pinkie and allowed the English to occupy all main border strongholds and give them control of border, but the rest of the army was too weak to occupy Scotland

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Scotland and France (2):

-Defeat united the Scottish noble who supported Mary Guise, and made an alliance with the French that in return for military aid, Mary Queen of Scots would marry Henry II's eldest son Francis, and as such they sent a French fleet to Scotland and Mary was taken to be educated in France

-Somerset was more preoccupied with domestic issue, but correctly predicting that the French would not attack Boulogne for fear of drawing Charles V into the war, Somerset strengthend the north with an army that succeeded in securing the border, however French grew tired of the war and the Scottish resented the French presence in Scotland so the alliance detoriated

-However affairs in the North were overshadowed with the peasant uprisings in England, and because he was unwilling to withdraw garrisons from Scotlandthe delay allowed the rebellions to spiral out of control, and eventually Somerset finally withdrew from the Scotland and recalled a fleet to guard from possible French attack, French however was tired of costly war and focused on laying siege to Boulogne, and in turn Scotland was too weak to launch a counter-attack

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Somerset's foreign policy (3):

Somerset's leadership qualities:

-Historians generally agree he was a good field general, but as a Commander-in-Chief he was indecisive and afraid to delegate authority

-Failed to seize iniative after victory and Pinkie of taking more of the border, and it was also this military indecision that led to his unwillingness to redeploy his troops in 1549 that allowed popular uprisings to get out of hand

-However, some historians argue that Somerset inherited an impossible diplomatic/military situation in 1547, and was bound by Henry VIII's will to arrange a marriage between Edward VI and Mary Queen of Scots, so would have had to gone to war with Scotland at some point in order to achieve these goals set out

-Also suggested because of the Franco-Scottish alliance, England's weak military position in France and chronic shortage of money, this was a war which could not have been won

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Somerset's fall from power (1):

-1549 England was in serious crisis, Somerset unable to supress Western/Kett's rebellion, likley because ruling elite would not intervene until they had government support, lack of money made it difficult to raise a mercenary army and Somerset as commander-in-chief was reluctant to withdraw wages from Scottish and France garrisons, costing an expensive £351,000 in wages

-Only when the Privy Council realised the seriousness of the situation did they provide troops and sent Lord Russell to the West Country and John Dudley (Warwick before Northumberland) to defeat the rebels, major consequence of these rebellions was Somerset's fall, as his allies abandoned the man who seemed unable to prevent anarchy in the country

-Fresh from his victory in Norfolk, Dudley had Somserset arrested in 1549 with no opposition, and although he was released and rejoined the Privy Council, within a year he was accused of plotting against the government and was arrested/executed in 1552

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Somerset's fall from power (2):

-Other reasons Somerset fell besides his terrible policies/inability to deal with rebellion include:

1. In 1549 Somerset took Edward VI under his care at Windsor Castle, where the King complained of the cold and accused his uncle of keeping him prisoner, in which Somerset turned on him and warned that if he was to deprive him of his position therer would be riots on the street, and subsquently the King withdrew his support from him

2. Edward long complained Somerset did not give him enough pocket money, and this embarrassed him when he could not reward his courtiers in the manner of a King, but before his execution Thomas Seymour supplied the King with funds and thus undermined Somerset

3. Despite the rebels making clear that they did not intend to destroy the current social order, the nobility and the members of the council chose to blame Somerset

4. Paget (comptroller of the King's Household) accused Somerset of showing "softness" over the rebellions and taking the advice of the council, factionalism was coming to the surface again

5. Moderate Catholics blamed Somerset for the changes that sparked the Western Rebellion

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How did Northumberland rise to power:

-Dudley was an able soldier/politician, well educated/intelligent and greedy, arguably not a man of strong conviction because of the way he used Lady Jane Grey/renounced Protestantism to save his own life, even before Somerset's arrest he was discredited/lost control of the political situation, Dudley returned to London having crushed Kett's rebellion and now controlled the capital in charge of England's main army, immediately began to negotiate with Conservative Faction leaders Lords Arundel and Wriothesley

-In desperation Somerset issued proclamations; one withdrawing troops from France/Scotland and the other calling for loyal soldiers to fight on his side, no response and Somerset ended up negotiating on terms with the Privy Council to stand down, and then was arrested 3 days later

-Dudley had a good reputation from Scottish/French wars and was member of the Regency Council, and after isolating and destroying Somerset pretended to work with the Conservatives to gain control of the council while secretly siding with the reformers especially Cramner, who through him managed to win the King's confidence in 1550 and was able to expel all conservatives from the council, to secure power he give himself title of Lord President of the Council and General Warden of the North (gave him full military command) and the title of Duke of Northumberland in October 1551 when he also had Somerset re-arrested

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How effectively did he govern-Northumberland's rule:

Aims:

-Solve the financial problems, Nigel Heard: Somerset spent £1,356,00 on war and this put the entire country into economic downturn, with spiralling inflation and virtual bankruptcy

-Restablish law/order after rebellions and restablish loyalty of commons/nobility

-Deal with problems of vagrancy and poverty

-Maintain his own position as leader of the Council

Management of Government:

-Restored Council into prime decision making and expanded to 33 members, packed it with his own supporter sbut also included invaluable people from Somerset like Cecil/Paget

-Established inner committees in Council so business might be carried out more efficiently

-Goverment mostly same, but less reliance on proclamations and more on using Parliament 

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Financial policy (1):

-John Guy describes the end of foreign wars as "the Duke's prime administrative task", as it would help to solve financial problems, agreed Treaty of Boulogne 1550 which returned Boulogne to France and enabled him to withdraw English troops from Scotland, reducing expenditure

-Northumberland identified his financial priorities in June 1551:

1. Debasement of coinage

2. King's regular income must match his expenditure

3. King's debts must be paid so that he would be solvent

-Northumberland appointed Paget as Lord Treasurer and placed William Cecil in charge of financial planning as Secretary of State, also sent Sir Thomas Gresham with £12,000 a week to manipulate the stock market, and between all of them they manged to provide according to Elton "the basis for sound finance" by the reign of Elizabeth

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Financial policy (2):

-Last debasement of coinage was in 1551, as while it did boost inflation it provided the government with a profit of £144,000 that it used to pay off immediate loans/expenses, value of coinage not entirely fixed until 1560, but silver content did get to the previous 1527 rate in 1552 which slowed down inflation and economic problems

-Northumberland ordered radical cuts in expenditure, made possible by ending the war and supported by reports from commissions he set up to investigate the state of royal finance/methods of collecting taxes

-Set up an emergency fund known as the "Privy Coffer"

-Northumberland tried to restructure the system of collecting/accounting for revenues by reducing the number of revenue courts into two, not implemented by the time of Edward's death but was completed in Mary's reign

-Elton claims Northumberland was "hampered by his own and his party's greed", as he was dependent on supporters for power so needed to keep selling off crown lands and gaining profit to give them patronage instead of economy, issue not sorted and passed onto Edward's heirs

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Northumberland's social policy:

-Careful to avoid the pitfalls of Somerset's policies that failed miserably

-Introduced a new Treason Act of 1550 which restored censorship and enabled JP's to restore law and order in their localities

-Same year oversaw the repeal of the Vagrancy Act and also the Sheep Tax, and this played an important role in dampening discontent among the masses as well as landowners

-He also attempted to do something for the poor by vigorously enforcing the existing anti-enclosure legislation and introduced a poor law to enable parishes to provie for the aged and infirm

-His financial reforms did not solve the underlying problems, but they did help to reduce inflation, and controls introduced on the distribution of grain after the poor harvests of 1551 did alleviate the greatest pressures on the poor

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Northumberland's foreign policy (1):

France and Scotland:

-1549 England was on war with France and Scotland due to their aim of marrying Mary Queen of Scots, and Charles V was becoming increasingly alienated by the reformation

-Henry II personally led a siege on Boulogne, and the English being too bankrupt to defend it and Charles V refused to help them, had to sign the Treaty of Boulogne in 1550 which held Boulogne at the ransom of England for 400,000 crowns, and had to move garrisons from Scotland and not renew a war aginst them unless provoked, and had to enter a defensive alliance with France

-Loss was seen as a national disgrace and added to Northumberland's popularity, but managed to negotiate that Henry II's daughter would be married to Edward VI when she was 12 years old

-When England left Scotland still controlled by French, Scottish nobles were worried it might become a province of France, no policy to follow for the Lords until Northumberland declared himself General Warden of the North in 1550, agreed in 1552 after many disputes over the border that it would be returned as it was before Henry VIII's scottish campaigns

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Northumberland's foreign policy (2):

Spain/Holy Roman Empire:

-Charles V angry over reformation/Edward trying to force Mary to abandon Catholicism, and in 1550 he issued an edict in the Netherlands allowing Catholic Inqusition to arrest any heretics, outraging many English merchants and leading to the collapse of the Antwerp cloth market as many Flemish cloth-makers fled to England to avoid persecution, only later in 1550 he tried to make good with England to prevent it going into a French alliance

-1552 war broke out between Charles V and Henry II, Northumberland resisted pressure to join war aginst Holy Roman Empire, and Charles was more conciliatory over English trade and the two countries had good relations in June 1552

-French then invaded Lorraine and the Netherlands, and despite Charles V reminding England of obligations to assist they merely reinforced garrison at Calias, French relations also detoriated because half the ransom for Boulogne was unpaid and French privateers attacked English ships

-1553 Northumberland proposed mediator between Spain and France, action prompted over Edward and Charles V illness, French had no interest in peace and negotiations collapsed


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Lady Jane Grey and the Succesion Crisis (1):

-Edward VI frequently attented more Council meetings and because of his maturity it was declared he would reach his majority at the age of 16 rather than 18, but in early 1553 he contracted tuberculosis and it was clear that he would not survive, placed both him and Northumberland in a dilemma as Henry's will stated Mary would succeed him, as their reformation would be reversed

-Many historical debate over the motives behind the attempt at changing the succession:

1. Elton: claims that changes were a desperate and doomed attempt by Northumberland in order to pevert the succession towards his family

2. Guy: Claims Northumberland intended to usurp power, but also acknowledges that Edward did not want Mary to succed him, born out of the "devise" Edward drafted in January 

-This document passes over his sister who were still illegitimate, and passed the throne onto the Suffolk branch of the family to "Lady Jane Grey's male heir", in May Northumberland planned to marry her to his son Guildford Dudley because she was a highly protestant, when devise was drafted looks like Edward may recover but was changed to "Lady Jane Grey AND her male heir" when it was obvious she would not have children when Edward died

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Lady Jane Grey and the Succesion Crisis (2):

-Edward died 6th July 1553, and before his death Northumberland pressured lawyers into incorporating Edward's devise into a new will, and despite their concerns that the order of a minor could not overthrow that of a major but they still made "Letter Patent for the Limitation of the Crown" according to his wishes

-Northumberland kept death secret for 2 days while he bullied members of Council/Mayor of London into agreeing to the devise, and then declared Grey Queen, however little support for his position, Mary declared herself rightful Queen/began mustering trops for her cause

-Northumberland was obliged to move to Suffolk with 2000 troops to meet the challenge, but his troops deserted him and in his absence the Council switched sides, Mary entered London on the 3rd August 1443 and was acknowledged as Queen, Northumberland was arrested/executed for treason, Guildford and Lady Jane Grey were imprisoned in the tower and executed in 1554 when they were too dangerous to keep alive after Wyatt's rebellion

-Mary succeeded because of her strength of will to get her inheritance, issues with this put to rest in 1553 which declared her legtimate Queen, and then again in 1554 with the Act Concerning Regal Power, asserting the rights of female monarchs in England

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Reformation in Religion 1547-1566 (1)

What was Edward's influence on the Reformation:

-By mid-1530s protestant experimentation had ended, but this had not stopped certain Protestant innovations like the Lord's Prayer/10 Commandments being taught in English and many nobility reading the Bible in English, and under Edward the reformation  would be significantly increased

-The people closest to Edward (step-mother Catherine Parr and tutor Richard Coxe) were all Protestants, and he surronded himself with reforming preachers whose views he seemed to share, and by the time he was 13, he made it quite clear that he did not believe the First Prayer Book (1549) went far enough, and the evidence shows that he was involved in the legislation for the Second Act of Uniformity (1552)

-He was the dirving force behind the efforts to force Mary to become Protestant, and was greatly frustarted when she invoked the support of her cousin Charles V to allow her to maintain Catholic practices in her household

-His keen interest/growing involement in the affairs ot state probably go a long way in explaining why the reformation entered a more radical phase on the accension of Northumberland, particuarly as he hed been more aware of the need to satisfy Edward VI than Somerset had been

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Reformation in Religion 1547-1566 (2)

Attitudes towards religious reform:

-Somerset: Avid protestant who kept a Protestant household/correspondence with Calvin, under his influence the tone of court changed as Protestant preachers made their presence known there, protestantism was not swift under Somerset and Christopher Haigh argues it was because Somerset feared the dangers associated with reform e.g rebellion of the Pilgrimage of Grace

-Reformers were in the majority in the Privy Council, but the Bishops there was no general agreement; 9 Bishops led by Cramner and Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of Rocester supported reform, 10 Bishops led by Gardiner and Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London opposed change and 8 Bishops were by-and-large undecided on doctrinal issues

-A majority of ruling elites seem to have been in favour (or at least not opposed to) religious reform, however lower clergy were largely opposed as they were uneducated compared to other groups and wanted to maintain their traditional way in life, this was in turn applied to the population, largely because they were more conservative and their culture comprised of rituals and festivals mixed in with religious elements, so being forced to change was not widely accepted, however, exceptions to this were in East Anglia (large amount of protestant refugees settled here from the continent) and London (clergy were better educated and many minorities demanded reform)

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Reformation in Religion 1547-1566 (3)

Religious reforms under Somerset's protectorate (1):

-Edward's first Parliament in 1547 repealed the Act of Six Articles, while the moderation of the Treason Act lifted censorship, and this resulted in an upsurge of Protestant literature as well as an increase in the number of clergy preaching openly Protestant ideas in their parishes

-Closure of chantries in 1547 was largely because of financial neccessities, but it was a logical continuation from the dissolution of the monasteries and effectively demonstrated that the new government rejected the Catholic doctrine of purgatory

-More decidely Protestant change brought about by Cramner's preaching against the images of saints that adorned churches, a Royal Injuction in 1547 forbid the veneration of images, and Visitation commisioners took the instructions much more strictly and began removing images from churches

-In September 1547 images were taken down from St. Paul's Cathedral in London, and mistakenly the Council ordered their restoration,all across the country communities were split on the issue until 1548 when Somerset sided with radicals and the order to ban such images was extended to the whole realm, and this suggests Somerset reformed because of pressures from below, most churches complied, storing them away in case of a later change of policy

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Reformation in Religion 1547-1566 (4)

Religious reforms under Somerset's protectorate (2):

-Gardiner and Bonner imprisoned for complaints about Book of Homilies issued in July 1547, which included preaching on sola fide (justification by faith alone-good works needed in order to achieve salvation), and book's purpose was to provide model sermons for members of the clergy who were unable to preach for themselves, and the fact that a copy was ordered for every church and these two Bishops were arrested shows they were expected to conform to the Reformation

-Somerset tried to take a moderate reform path to avoid potential dangers, approved of the inclusion of English prayers in communion service and asked the people to be content with these changes while Cramner worked on a new prayer book

-The First Edwardian Act of Uniformity (1549) enforced the Book of Common Prayer (First Prayer Book), bill had little trouble passing in the Commons but in Lords faced opposition from 8 Bishops and 3 Lay Peers, retained transubstantion in Communion but emphasised there was no sacrifice involved, and it was hoped this would achieve the compliance of the Catholic population, and Gardiner had given his assent to the changes, which also included the use of English in services instead of Latin


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Reformation in Religion 1547-1566 (5)

Religious reforms under Somerset's protectorate (3):

-Purpose of the Act of Uniformity was to ensure that services across England conformed to the new teaching and brought an end to the wide variety of services that different parishes were using, but despite this approach it led to the grievances of this act being voice by the rebels in the Western Rebellion, however there was no evidence of other outcries and most parishes complied

-Historian Colin Pendrall does argue that priests mumbled the words so that they might as well have been in Latin and used alternative gestures for the fact that they were forbidden from Elevation of the Host (ritual used in raising the consercated Bread and wine during the celebration of the Eucharist in Mass, indicating that transubstantiation has taken place)

-Some complaints also came from strict protestants such as John Hooper the Bishop of Gloucester, who complained that the prayer book was full of popish errors and demanded a completely Protestant prayer book

-Henry VIII's order forbidding clerical marriage were overturned in the same Parliament, and this was significant in showing the steps towards Protestantism Somerset had took

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Attitude towards religious reform:

-Religious views of Northumberland present historians with a dilemma, rose to power with the support of the Catholic Faction in what they saw was the dangerous path of Protestantism that Somerset was pursuing

-Northumberland also died a Catholic, affirming his beliefs shortly before his execution

-However, it was under Northumberland's stewardship that England embraced Protestant doctrines and practices, and it was clear that he was more responsive to the King's wishes that Somerset ever had been

-Haigh claims that Northumberland did not care about formal religious alliegiance, instead Northumberland treated religion as a useful policy in attracting allies

-Haigh also concurs with Elton's view that Northumberland was primarily motivated by the gains that could be made from seizing Church property

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Religious reforms under Northumberland's protectorate-1550:

-Introduced Ordinal (code for ordination of priests), written by Cramner and marked a clear move away from Catholic priest to Protestant minister, rites of ordination were simplified and the ceremony remained traditional, key change was in the emphasis on the role of the cleric as a preacher

-Issue of Catholic altars of Protestant communion tables was contentious, communion tables emphasised that the communion service (mass) was memorial and not a sacrifice and when the communion tables were placed in the nave it was an indication that there was no presence of Christ in the mass

-Removal of altars tended to be a result of local intiatives by members of the reforming clergy, but issue came to a head when Bishops of Gloucester and London removed their altars, and in November removal of all altars was enforced by the Council so they could ensure uniformity

-Mostly complied with this, but in some Churches the altars were dismantled and stored in the hope that they might one day be restored, implying level of percieved unstability in England

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Religious reforms under Northumberland's protectorate-1551:

-The dominance of the conservative bishops was at an end as Bishops Bonner and Gardiner were now in prison as a result of their objections to the Book of Homilies and their complaints that Cramner had abandoned the key Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation

-Reformers replaced them, for example Nicholas Ridley took Bonner's see in London, and John Hooper examined the credentials of his clergy and discovered that over half of the clergy in his diocese could not recite the 10 commandments, which was a motivating factor in the production of a new, more Protestant prayer book

-Removal of Catholic epicopacy provided Northumberland with the oppurtunity to seize more ecclesiastical property, sees of London and Winchester were combined and this allowed the state to take possession of lands and manors that had previously been Church property

-Northumberland could use these to cement alliances on the Council, supporting the claim that he was motivated primarily by wealth rather than any devotion to doctrinal change 


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Religious reforms under Northumberland's protectorate-1552:

-Many reformers complained of the unsatisfactory comprimise between tradition and reform in the First Act of Uniformity/First Prayer Book, and so Northumberland passed the Second Act of Uniformity which imposed the Second Prayer Book

-Presented as a clarification of the First Prayer Book, but in fact it's adoption marked the culmination of the reformation in Edward's reign, as it abandoned the structure of the Mass and removed any suggestion of transubstantiation from the communion service, which was now called "The Lord's Supper"

-The act allowed kneeling at the communion, but there wa an outcry from radical reformers such as John Knox that the Council  inserted what became known as the "Black Rubric", statement that kneeling did not imply an adoration of the Host/belief in the bodily presence of Christ

-The Second Prayer Book also removed the wearing of Catholic vestements, whcih were to be replaced by a surplice (white traditional gown)

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Religious reforms under Northumberland's protectorate-1553:

-Forty-Two Articles written by Cramner defining the reformed theology now at the heart of English religious practices/beliefs, intended to protect the Church of England from Catholic ideas and the zeal of Anabaptists (Protestants who believed in the importance of the Bible, adult baptism and the complete seperation of Church and State)

-Articles were a mix of Lutheran/Calvinist teaching and emphasised the importance of the scriptures in determining doctrine, ceremony and the path to salvation, salvation being achieve by "faith only in Jesus Christ" (as taught by Luther) while Article 14 introduced Predestination

-Forty-Two Articles underscored lay control of the Church, the Supremacy of the Monarach and that the clergy were not raised above the congregation, and this was clearly demonstrated in the emphasis that the laity would take communion in both kinds

-By the time of Edward VI's death in July 1553, the Church of England was protestant in terms of Church hierarchy/doctrine/services, implementation was patchy across the nation, but there was little sign of resistance aside from the Western Rebellion (1549), and this meant that the stamping out of of Protestantism in Mary's reign proved more difficult than she anticipated

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Marian Settlement 1553-1558-Mary's aims:

-Mary had been brought up a strict Catholic, and she had maintained her position despite Edward's attempts to convert her, so she was determined to restore Catholicism to England and return to the supremacy of Rome and to enforce Catholic doctrine

-Indeed she and her supporters interpreted her accession, in succeeding over Northumberland's plot to prevent her from taking her throne as divinely ordained and that it's purpose was to defeat the Protestant heresy and save England

-Mary believed that the outburst of popular support that accomapanied her accession was a conformation that the people were eager for a return to the "true religion", but she was likley mistake as it was more a case of disliking Northumberland and having a true Tudor on the throne

-She also intended to return Royal Supremacy to Papal Supremacy, despite the warning that this was bad idea from advisers like Charles V, Pope Julius III, Cardinal Pole and Gardiner, as Royal Supremacy as supported by many of the elite classes as the better way to rule England, and would water-down Mary's power as a monarch who intended to impose unpopular reforms on the English population as she re-established Catholicism in her kingdom

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The Restoration of Catholicism (1):

-Parlaiment met in in October 1553 and passed the First Statue of Repeal (1553) that reversed all religious legislation passed in Edward's reign and restored the Church of England to the position it had been in the last years of Henry VIII's reign, doctrine governed by the Act of Six Articles

-The approach emphasises the Catholic nature Mary intended to go into later in her reign, but did so cautiosly (didn't restore papal supremacy/medieval heresey laws) during 1554 while she married Phillip II of Spain

-Mary also faced no trouble with passing the Act of Six Articles, especially because Bishops Hooper, Ridley and Archbishop Cramner were all arrested and this removed strong Protestant opposition from the House of Lords

-It was Gardiner who intially tried to get the heresy laws passed, but was defeated by Paget, however Gardiner than turned his attention to the Protestant Clergy and the Bishops of Gloucester, Hereford, Lincoln and Rochester were deprived of their bishoprics which were replaced by committed Catholics ensuring loyalty to Mary's cause, injunctions in 1554 also demanded that parish clergy give up their wives and families or lose their jobs, and 800 parish clergy suffered this

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The Restoration of Catholicism (2):

-Cardinal Reginald Pole (Grandson of George Plantagenet so had a claim to the throne, refused to support Henry VIII and attacked him from abroad, became Cardinal in 1536 and Papal Legate in 1542, spearheaded Mary's religious reversion and died 17th November 1558, 12 hours after Mary), returned to England in November 1554 and pronouced a solemn abosolution on England and so prepared the ground for the restoration of Papal supremacy in England

-This led to the Second Statue of Repeal, which repealed all religious legislation passed in the reign of Henry VIII after 1529, and so this meant the Monarch ceased to be the Head of the Church and this restored Papal Supremacy, as well as reviving the mediveal heresy laws

-However to achieve this Mary had to come to a comprimise with the landed elites, and provision was made to protect property rights of all those who bought Church land in 1536, and shows Mary recognised authority of Parliament over matters of religion, and that she had to fore-go plans of mass restoration of monastic land, only able to restore the £60,000 worth still under Crown control, also can be argued that there was no Papal Supremacy but Papal Headship, as the Pope's leadership was spiritual and distant and this was clearly demonstrated by the Cardinal Pole issue in 1555


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Cardinal Pole's Reforms:

-His priorities of restoring Catholicism led to him neglecting government to some extent, and this meant that ecclesiastical revenues were so denuded that there were insufficient resources availabe to reorganise the Marin church effectively, and the three years Pole spent in office was trying to fix the Church of England's financial position

-Pope Julius III died and was replaced by Pope Paul IV, who disliked Pole and hated the Habsburgs, stripped Pole of his title of Legate and asked him to return to Rome, Pole and Mary refused and he continued his work in England as Archbishop of Canterbury, and this futhered hindered his work as he could not appoint Bishops without Papal authority and so by 1558 seven sees were vacant, and such internal quarrels did  little to convince the population of the wisdom of returning to the authority of Rome, but he still managed to appoint capable and active Bishops that would resist Elizabeth's religious settlement later on

-In 1555 the Westminister Synod passed the Twelve Decrees, that included the establishment of seminaries (theological colleges aimed at educating the priesthood) but a shortage of money limited the programme to a single creation in York, and this is why the majority of the clergy remained poorly educated and therefore why few clergy objected to the Elizabethan Settlement after 1559, as they were not fired with the same zeal of the Marian Bishops

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The religious persecution of "Bloody Mary" (1):

-Mary has historical reputation as "Bloody Mary" for the 284 men and women she burned at the stake as heretics between 1555-1558, revival of medieval heresey laws provided legal justification for the actions, and she believed that getting rid of them would be for the moral well-being of society and also to make an example of why Protestantism should not be followed,

-Supported by Pole and Bonner, and also zealous Bishops and even magistrates who organized raids on the homes of suspected heretics

-Accounts of these executions immortalized in John Foxe's "Book of Martyrs" printed in 1560, the majority of those executed coming from the lower orders and most came from London/south-east/East-Anglia

-Most notorius executions were that of the Edwardian Bishops, Hooper in Feb 1555, Latimer and Ridley in Oct 1555 and of Cranmer in 1556 after he retracted his faith, and these executions did not lead to an outbreak of revolt and was largerly accepted, and even Simon Renard implored her to use another method that would not draw so much attention

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The religious persecution of "Bloody Mary" (2):

-Scale of burnings was not as bad as the Counter-reformation numbers on the continent in the 16th century (Spanish Inqusition between 1480-1530 killed 2000 people), however from 1553-1558 she averaged around 6 burnings a month which in the time frame is much higher than on the continent and therefore it is difficult to defend her policy as moderate

-Evidence suggests it was effective, deaths peaked in June 1557 and then declined, also Protestants were executed in own districts so people all over the country experienced the policy of persecution first-hand, in terms of committed wealthy Protestants many fled abroad, and in this time their faith would be strengthned and imbue people with Calvinist ideas that ultimately resulted in a more radical form or Protestantism being introduced into England in the reign of Elizabeth,

-Burnings in England did not lead to an increase in Catholics and the majority of England were likley Catholic in November 1558, but it did lead to a more committed resistence to Catholicism in the now undergound Protestant communities, and this did seriously undermine Mary's popularity in those areas, many also argue death of Gardiner in 1555 removed a trusting and restraining influence on Mary, who now with Pole saw it as their divine duty to hunt down Protestants

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How successful was the Marian Settlement:

-Traditional historians see the Marian settlement as a failure, an abberation in the march towards Protestantism that started in 1529 and was compelted in the Elizabethan settlement, promoted by Dickens and Elton they argue that triumph or Protestantism was inevitable because it was already so established it would be impossible for Catholicism to be restored

-Haigh and Duffy dispute this, arguing that Protestantism only had a loose hold on the population (particualry outside the south-east), and that a return was Catholicism was popular, evidenced by the fat only 7 of the Edwardian Bishops were deprived of their living while the rest supported the reversion of the reformation, compared favourably to the fact that all but one of the Edwardian Bishops refused to take the Oath of Supremacy in the Elizabethan Settlement, and only 800 members of the clergy were deprived because of marriage laws not resistence to religious reforms, so Haigh argues that the Marian Settlement was a success

-Their research provides balance to an argument driven by hindsight, but important to remember Mary only reigned for 5 years and implementation of policies was difficult due to lack of funds to restore churches/give clergy education, and even if she had lived longer her unpopular spainish marriage/persecution policies meant that Catholicism in England would be associated with intolerance, so her success was only short-lived and cannot be exaggerated

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The Elizabethan Settlement 1558-66, accession of Elizabeth 1st, Nov 1558:

-Mary fell ill in August 1558 from seasonal influenza, and by the end of October it was clear that she was going to die so on the 28th October added a Codicil (document that amends a will) that allowed Elizabeth to succeed her, although she would not hame in her in the will instead calling her "my next heir and successor by laws of this realm"

-Lady Jane Dormer brought Elizabeth to Mary, where she claimed she was a "true catholic" in order to assure her sister, and then later called upon her Protestant allies during her reign, illustrating how pragmatic a politician Elizabeth was

-David Starkey argues however that Elizabeth was leaving nothing to chance however, her servants positioned around the country in country houses/court, they also stockpiled weapons and laid plans for raising troops in the even of Mary diverting the succession away from Elizabeth, and this Starkey argues raises questions over Elizabeth's innocence in the various plots in Mary's reign

-However, Elizabeth's succession was the smoothest since Henry VI, Parliament was already assembled and on the 17th November, when they were informed of Mary's death, Lords and Commons pronounced Elizabeth as Queen

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Elizabeth's religious views:

-Her upbringing had been Protestant, as her mother Anne Boleyn left her in the religious welfare of Matthew Parker (Protestant scholar, and later one of the authors of the Thirty-nine Articles and also became Archbishop of Canterbury under Elizabeth)

-Furthermore, she was cared for by Catherine Parr who was protestant, and also tutored alongside her brother Edward by scholar Roger Ascham of Cainbridge, who came from a hotbed of Protestantism

-Her personal translations, book of private devotions and her attitude to what she considered popish influence (candles, images of saints and the elevation of the Host at the Mass) which she refused to permit propagates the Elizabeth's Protestant beliefs

-However, Derek Wilson argues she was also influenced by certain aspects of religion she grew up with-crucifix on the table-and would not get rid of these certain elements she liked

-Elizabeth was also a more astute politician than Mary, so also considered the international and international concerns regarding her settlement of religion

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Key issues affecting Elizabeth's decision in 1558 (1):

-Elizabeth wanted to avoid the mistakes of Edward and Mary; introduction of Protestantism that led to Western Rebellion of 1549 and Mary's persecution of Protestants which had given the victims the status of martys and harderned attitudes towards her

-Spain/France both Catholic countries who were unlikley to support a Protestant reformation in England, however Spain needed its alliance with England to maintain its diplomatic position in Europe and this offered Elizabeth moderate reform without fear of Spanish intervention

-Mary, Queen of Scots was married to Francis II of France, and on their accession to the French throne in July 1559, Mary claimed the title of Queen of England-English Catholics might well regard her as the rightful Queen rather than Elizabeth since they did not recognise the legality of Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn

-Elizabeth was aware that the majority of the population, especially outisde of London and the South-East were conservative in religion, and preferred the ceremonies and celebrations that were an intergral part of the Catholic Church

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Key issues affecting Elizabeth's decision in 1558 (2):

-Commons/Privy Council largely Protestant and Elizabeth could expect their support for Protestant legislation, however Lords was dominated by Catholics (including Marian bishops) that would resist and be hostile towards Protestant changes

-Pope could excommunicate Elizabeth, formally seperating her from the Catholic Church and forbidden to partake of sacraments, and other Catholics would not be allowed to associate with her, also encouraged European powers (Spain) to launch a crusade against her and free her subjects from their duty to her (meaning they could rebel)

-Spain/France unlikley to support Reformation, Elizabeth didn't want to antagonise France when she was trying to bring war to an end, she was convinced she could regain Calais (last posession of the continent lost in the recent war) and did not want to provide reasons for French resistance

-Elizabeth was unsure of support for Protestant reformation from Protestant states, as while the Netherlands was becoming more protestant they were under Spanish control and offered a place for Phillip II to launch an invasion of England, Scottish population/Lords were Protestant but Mary Queen of Scots was Catholic, as was acting Scottish regent Mary of Guise

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Elizabeth's aims for the religious settlement:

-More inclined to be Protestant but knew the resistence that could happen if she was heavy-handed, so being a pragmatic politician she steered a middle way of introducing Protestant doctrine but keeping the traditional structure of the Church as well as familiar rituals

-Believed this would be acceptable to the majority of the population, and avoided the persecution of Mary that led her being unpopular, and Elizabeth sought two outcomes from her settlement:

1. Uniformity: Elizabeth wanted to establish a national Church that would be acceptable to all

2. Conformity: Elizabeth was determined that her subjects would conform to the demands of her religious settlement regardless of their personal religious belief-she did not want to "make windows into men's souls"

-These two aims were central to the successfull establishment of a religious settlement that woulda void the type of religious war that was present on the continent, in time Elizabeth hoped that her subjects would know no other type of Church, Catholicism would die out with the older generations

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The Church Settlement 1559 (1):

-Neccessary for Parliament to be called to enact religious legislation, and it was in Feburary 1559 when three religious bills were introduced into Commons, one was to establish the Monarch as the head of the Church and the other two were to establish a Protestant form of worship

-Later in February these were combined into a single bill and passed by Commons (MP Protestant), however Lords forced the bill into a committee dominated by Catholic sympathisers and stunned Elizabeth by rejecting the restoration of Protestantism, refusing to repeal Mary's heresy laws and questioning Elizabeth's right to supremacy over the Church

-Elizabeth did not want to lose the support Commons and another election could not gurantee another similarly favourable house, dissolving Parliament was too risky and ultimately Elizabeth prorouged (suspend a session/discontinue it without formally ending the session) at Easter, and during the Holy Week a Disputation (formalised method of debate to discover truths in theology) was to be held at Westminister Abbey between four Catholic Bishops and Doctors and the equivalent number of Protestants

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The Church Settlement 1559 (2):

-There were 3 key propositions to the debate:

1. Whether or not it was contrary to the word of God to use a tounge unknown in worship (Latin)

2. Every Church has authority to change its ceremonies

3. It cannot be proved by the word of God that there is in Mass offered up a sacrifice propitiatory for the quick and dead

-Elizabeth's ministers left nothing to chance and the Catholics were barely allowed to make their case, Sir Nicholas Bacon (Lord Keeper of the Seal, Privy Council member whose advice Elizabeth greatly valued) stopped them in their tracks, and on the next day he stonewalled the Bishops (by using delaying tactics) and forced them into an act of defiance

-This justified the arrest of the Bishops of Winchester and Lincoln, who were sent to the tower for contempt and the rest of the Bishops were bound over, and in this way Elizabeth won the disputation, two bills introduced into Commns so if one failed the other might pass

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The Act of Supremacy (This Act passed easily in both Commons/Lords):

-Elizabeth was made Supreme Governor of the Church of England (this eased doubts about Catholics and Protestants over having a women in control of the Church), in reality however Elizabeth was able to excercise as much power over the Church as her father had done

-The clergy and royal officials were obliged to swear acceptance of Elizabeth's title on oath

-Papal supremacy was revoked

-The heresy laws were to be repealed

-An ecclesiastical high commission was established to ensure that the changes were implemented at parish level, and those whose loyalty was suspect were prosecuted

-No other changes to the sturcutre of the Church of England, Archbishop of Canterbury remained primate over Archbishop of York and the bishops who governed their dicoceses, very different to the ones in Europe which instead of having a hierarchal structure with origins in the Roman Catholic Church allowed the congregation to organise themselves, however it was this presence of a familiar structure that was aof great comfort to the largely conservative population

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The Act of Uniformity:

-A new Book of Common Prayer was issued based on those in 1549/1552, and all Churches were obliged to use the new books and there who punishments for those who refused to/made puclib objections to it, priests were also instructed to use the wording of the two books when offering Communion service, and these words were sufficiently ambigous so Catholics could percieve the presence of Living Christ in the Eucharist, and Protestants could see it as a commerative act

-Everyone was to attend church on Sundays and Holy Days, and a fine of one shilling for every absence was imposed on those who failed to attend church services, people called recusants

-Ornaments in Church/clerical dress to be the same as in the second year of Edward VI, this prevented Protestants attack what they considered to be popish idolatry of the Churches, and monasteries/Chantries Mary founded were dissolved and the assets transferred to the Crown

-Act passed through commons easily but considerably struggled in Lords, where all the Bishops were in oppsoition and 9 temporal peers joined them, in the end the act only passed by 21:18, victory was only possible because Winchester/Lincoln were in the Tower and the Abott of Westminister and the Bishop of St. Asaph were both absent

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The influence of Puritanism on Elizabeth's settlement:

-John Neale argued that Elizabeth intended to establish and Anglo-Catholic Church modelled on that of Henry VIII's, but she was thwarted in her plans by a vocal Puritan opposition in Commons, which forced her into a more radical settlement, and he termed this opposition a "Puritan Choir" and regarded it as having a significant hold in Commons

-However while there was Puritan challenges in Commons in the 1570/80s, therr was little evidence that Commons was a hotbed of radicalism in 1559, only 19 Marian exiles were elected to Commons and this number is not sufficient organised to exert pressure on Commons as a whole

-Norman Jones argues that only 25 MPs could be labelled as Calvinist or radical Protesatnts, and out of 400 MPs in Commons their impact was extremely limited

-Although it may have been expedient that Elizabeth push a conservative line with the French/Spanish, her religious beliefs and choice of Protestant ministers (Cecil/Bacon/Earl of Bedford) do not support the notion that she supported a Catholic settlement, and most challenges to her religious bills came from Lords not from Commons

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Royal Injunctions-1559:

-Acts of Supremacy/Uniformity were a starting point but required reinforcement, and William Cecil's Royal Injunctions were to perform this task, containing direct instructions to the clergy, covering a wide range of pratices to establish uniformity or worship/behaviour:

-Clergy were instructed to observe/teach royal supremacy and denounce papal supremacy, Catholic pratices include processions/pilgrimages/monuments to "fake" miracles were banned

-Recusants were to be dneounced/reported to Privy Council/JP, and pay a shilling fine every time they failed to attend Chutch on Sundays or Holy Days

-Unlincesed preaching forbidden (attacked Puritanism that underminer her and her bishops authority and could lead to civil disorder), and each parish was to possess and English Bible

-Congregation was to bow at the name of Jesus and kneel in prayer, clergy were to wear distinctive clerical dress with surplice and clerical marriage was only permitted when priests had permission from Bishop and two JPs

-To ensure these injunctions were enforced, 125 Commisions were appointed to visit churches and required Clergy to take the Oath of Supremacy

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The English Church Settlement and the bishops (1):

-Elizabeth as Supreme Governor needed to be represented by a body that would supervise the Church/clergy and enforce her decisions, and it was clear that the bishops could perform this function and that their presence would also calm Catholic fear both home/abroad

-This was because all but one of the Marian Bishops refused to take the Oath of Supremacy, so Elizabeth turned to men who had been exiles during Mary's reign, making Matthew Parker Archbishop of Canterbury, and as a moderate protestant could keep puritanism in check

-She appointed Edmund Grindal (strict puritan) as Bishop of London, John Jewell (defended Elizabeth's Church against critics) to Salisbury and Edwin Sandys (rose ranks later to Archbishop of York) to Worchester

-Their euthusiasm for the more stripped-down version of Protestantism that they expeerienced on the continent during their exile is reflected in their actions in the Visitations, in which they approved the removal and destruction of the Church ornaments-many bishops saw the settlement of 1559 as the starting point for reform, thus conflicting with Elizabeth's view that the Acts and the Royal Injunctions were a complete settlement

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The English Church Settlement and the bishops (2):

-Elizabeth regarded her bishops as loyal administrators, civil servants who could be reiled upon to enforce the royal will, and her attitude is demonstrated in action to curtail their power and influence in the Act of Exchange (1559)

-Under this act, Crown lands that had once belonged to the Church were returned in exchange for vauable diocesan properties of a non-spiritual nature, and in pratice this meant swapping rectories and Church buildings for castles and manor houses, Elizabeth used this newly acquired wealth to reward courtiers

-She also put pressure on bishops to grant favourable leases to laymen, and the pratice overcame some of the difficulties Elizabeth faced with her shortage of income, but it did not sit well with the bishops, who percieved that they were being used as tools of the Crown, especially as it was more often used as a means of punishment than for economic gain

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How significant were the challenges to the Church settlement 1566:

-The Visitations: Essentially inspections of parishes by bishops to ensure the Acts/Injunctions were being enforced, however Bishops often went further than Elizabeth intended, destroying images/Catholic clothing/relics/altars, and despite Elizabeth demanding that crucifixes were replaced, she was obliged to back down and have one in her private chapel for foreign ambassadors to see to reassure them that Elizabeth's faith was still Catholic

-The Clergy: Those making Visitations were empowered to examine beliefs of the clergy to ensure that they took the Oath/subscribed to Book of Common Prayer and Royal Injunctions, and only 400 of the clergy refused to take the oath and were obliged to resign, and out of the 8000-9000 parishes in England at the time this number was relatively low

-The Vestiarian Controversey (1566): Elizabeth wrote to Parker expressing her concern that not all members of the clergy were abiding by the injunction about the clerical dress, Parker wrote "Book of Advertisements" in an attempt to clarify clerical dress/doctrine/prayer/sacraments, however he was willing to comprimise on clerical dress allowing clergy to wear surplice and only insisting on full vestaments in cathedral services, Elizabeth refused to officialy support the book and Parker faced opposition from the Puritan clergy, and this culminated at a display of correct clerical dress at Lambeth 37/110 clergy refused to wear clothing they deemed to be Catholic, and so were removed from office

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How far did Elizabeth secure religious peace by 1566 (1):

-Majority of the largely Catholic population accepted the settlement, and most fell into the category of Church Papists (conformed to Elizabeth settlement but inwardly remained Roman Catholic) and they attended Church services reguarly

-It is true many parishes were slow to introduce all the reforms outlined in the injunctions and consequently there was little change intially, but this suited Elizabeth as no radical change meant unlikely that it should lead to rebellion, and through the process of visitations and these changes would eventually be implemented and in such a way as to be imperceptible to the population

-There were very few fines for recusancy, as the levying of fines depended on church wadrnes and they would be less inclined to report offences if they were Catholic sympathisers themselves, Elizabeth also did not want to pursue the matter with vigour in case it led to open opposition

-It is reasonable to conclude that up until 1566 the population did conform to the settlement, and it was only after the arrival of Mary, Queen of Scots that the Catholics felt their loyalties divided, and even then the great majority of them were to support Elizabeth

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How far did Elizabeth secure religious peace by 1566 (2):

-Foreign ambassadors that the Queen might be led back to the Catholic Church and this allowed Elizabeth to maintain cordial relations with France/Spain, and the settlement had therefore performed its role in this respect

-The Lower clergy had for the most part accepted the settlement, over 8000 took the Oath of Supremacy and this in turn would facilitate the gradual demise of Catholicism without rebellion, as the population grew to accept the new services

-The idea of the settlement as a starting point still held sway with the more radialc refomers who wanted to see a purer form of Protestantism, and they were perhaps more threatening at this point because they had sympathy/support of Elizabeth's bishops, and while Parker was in control such ambitions could be kept in check, but Puritan challenges woudl increase under Archbishop Grindal in the 1570s

-Elizabeth's position as Supreme Governor of the Church was secure and she was able to enforce her wishes through her bishops with only limited challenge

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (1)

Mary's Government (1):

Government system:

-System of central/local government remained the same, Privy Council remained at the centre of administration, although it was criticised for being too large to conduct business (sometimes had 43 members) and that some members of this lacked administrative expertise/political ability

-This was because Mary chose Catholic consellors from her own household, but she also had to take Northumberland's previous supporters in order to provide a stable nucleus of political ability, although this caused not only the increase in size but also rivarly between the Conservatives led by Chancellor Gardiner and the Moderates led by Paget, however these politicians two co-ordinated closely together in order to maintain an efficient government system

-Maintained that Parliament was strongly opposed to Mary, but in reality Lords filled with conservative clergy and the removal of reformist individuals (Cramner, Ridley and Latimer) meant it gave her strong support, Commons still filled with a mix of people but like all Parliaments was more concerned with local affairs/protection of property rights than religious change

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Mary's government (2):

Financial reforms:

-Inherited Northumberland's financial problems, and also gave away monastic land to re-establish Church, had to get other sources of income so acted from the Edwardian proposals of 1552 to Revenue Courts in 1554

-Exchequer restored as main financial department, took over work from the Court of First Fruits and Tenths and also the Court of Augmentations

-Court of Wards along with the Duchy of Lancaster retained it's independence form these reforms

-Planned to remove large number of debased coins and restore full silver content but Mary died before this could be achieved and Elizabeth reaped tyhe reward in 1560

-1552 proposal to change custom rates, 1558 new Book of Rates was issued which increased custome revenue from £29,000 to £85,000 a year

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (3)

Mary's government (3):

Economy:

-Series of bad harvests and sickness epidemics hit towns badly and food shortages were severe with high mortality rates amongst the peasantry

-Government's reaction was to contiune Henry VIII policy of restricting the movement of textiles and industries from the towns to the countryside in order to prevent an increase in urban unemployment and therefore reduce vagrancy

-This was short-sighted however because what was really needed was an increase in the amount and variety of industries in both town and country, which would provide jobs for the growing unemployed

-To achieve this government needed to encourage the search for new overseas market to replace the trade lost with Antwerp, however they were too anxious to avoid offending Spain and Portugal, and it was only under Elizabeth did this policy take a step in the right direction

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The Spanish Marriage:

-Mary's objectives included finishing the restoration of Catholicism by having a Catholic heir as well as creating a Catholic alliance, and while she could have married Edward Courtenay the Earl of Devon (descended from Plantagenent Kings, favoured by Gardiner) she favoured a closer link with the Habsburg family in Phillip II of Spain

-An alliance with Spain established since Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, and while there had been periods of emnity, even during Edward's reign relations had remained cordial

-Gardiner and Commons protested against marriage, warning would be unpopular amongst the people who hated the idea of Spanish rule and being used as a pawn for Spanish conquest of the continent, but she ignored the Privy Council/Gardiner/Commons and discussed it only with her Spanish ambassador Simon Renard

-Paget drafted a marriage treaty which was ratified in January 1554, and terms were favourable to England; Philip could not exercise regal power in England, appoint his own men to English offices or allow England to be involved or pay for Spanish wars, heir of Philip and Mary would inherit England and the Netherlands, and if Mary died childless succession would pass to Elizabeth, however Mary's popularity still ebbed and this led to Wyatt's rebellion in 1554

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The Spanish Marriage and Foreign Affairs (1):

-Mary's marriage to Philip in July 1554 was a disaster, match was very unpopular in England and was blamed by merchants fo the decline in the wool trade with the Netherlands

-1555 was clear to Philip that Mary couldn't bear a child and he returned to Spain which he inherited on his father's abdication 1555, and only returned to England in 1556 to persuade Mary to join him in the war against France, Privy Council opposed to this but Mary's infatuation with him led England into a war that lost Calais in 1558, lost only foothold on the continent

-England involvement in Habsburg-Valois conflict would be primarily a failure, but it did lay the foundations for the military/naval system that helped to defeat the Armada, first step towards this was a ship rebuilding programme in 1555 enhanced by a repair programme for which the Privy Council allocated funds

-Elizabeth would be able to use the vessels supplied by these programmes in her assault on Scotland in 1560, and the war with France also revealed the shortcomings of the English military forces with two acts; Arms Act 1558 (provided weapons for troops and overcame defiencies in armenants) and the Miltia Act 1558 (improved efficiency in mustering troops by imposing penalties on individuals who would not answer the muster)

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The Spanish Marriage and Foreign Affairs (2):

-French War 1557-1558: France and Spain war started in January 1557, intially England remained neutral but when French plots to depose Mary were uncovered the Privy Council in June 1557 sanctioned the dispacth of 7000 soldiers to fight in France

-Most battles of victory for Spain over France were already fought, but England managed to capture St. Quentin and haded it to the Spanish, and had the war ended then Mary's conduct would have been regarded favourably

-However in the mid-winter the Duke of Guise led a revenge attack on Calais, and the Commander of Calais Lord Wentworth was taken by surprise and his failure to take the French threat seriously rather than the condition of Calais defences that accounts for the defeat and loss in January 1558

-While Mary was alive Philip insisted that the return of Calais was included in negotiations, but after her death in 1558 he ceased to push for it and in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis in April 1559 Calais remained in the hands of the French

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The Spanish Marriage and Foreign Affairs (3):

-Mary's position may have been stronger had she produced an heir, her religious reforms safe-guarded and England's position on the continent significantly strengthend by the takeover of the Netherlands, but in this she had failed and this led to her reign often being seen as an overwhelming failure, or in Elton's words "Positive achievements there were none"

-The fear that Philip would use England to pursue ambitions against the French became a reality, and while the loss of Calais arguably benefited financially because England could not maintain the three fortresses there, it could not overcome the national humiltation

-Consequently few mourned Mary's passing, her stubborn pursuit of policies without gathering support from the Privy Council and her political inexperiance that led to ineptitude meant that her reign was not regarded as a success

-Mary couldn't complete her aims due to her physical/medical conditions preventing her from having a child and the shortness of her reign not allowing her changes to stay, however, her decent government (despite it's criticisms) financial reforms and revival of the army/navy played a vital role in Elizabeth's defeat of the Armada, so it canot be regarded as an entire failure


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Elizabeth's diplomatic aims:

-Establishment/maintenance of diplomatic relations with European neighbours was an essential part of a monarch's role and Elizabeth (like Henry VIII and Mary) reserved the formulation of policy as a royal prerogative 

-Succesful relations judged on how they met the aims of the monarch, little point of conducting a policy for the broader interest of the country if they did not satisfy the objectives of the Crown

-Elizabeth not concerned to pursue dynastic claims via marriage into another royal household, although she desired the return of Calais didn't assert the centuries-old claim to the French throne

-For Elizabeth, successful diplomacy policy would be achieved by protecting her realm from invasion from the north/south, allowing England to maintain her independence and by establishing connections as would allow English trade on the continent to flourish, enriching producers, merchants and the Crown from taxes and custom duties

-Religious issues and the contrasting aims of the other European countries complicated her chances of success in meeting these objectives

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (9)

Reformation and Counter-Reformation:

-Reformation had destroyed unity of Christendom and led to outbreak of religious conflict between/within countries

-England most important Protestant country in Europe, and Elizabeth's Church Settlement confirmed that she intended to return England to Protestantism, which was inevitably a cause of conflict in her relations with the Catholic Kingdom of Spain

-When Elizabeth came to the throne, the Counter-Reformation was in full swing, decisions taken at the Council of Trent (met 3 times between 1545-1563 in which it condemned Protestant heresies and defined Catholic doctrine) established training of priests in seminaries and layed the foundations for the Jesuit priests, and this was a serious threat to England as these priests could easily trigger the religious conflict like on the continent England had yet to see

-While Elizabeth was not motivated by religion the members of the Privy Council were, and the essential role that religion played in both the internal and external affairs of state means that a study of Elizabeth's diplomacy is linked with it's domestic impact

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The Main Contenders (1):

-England allied to Spain during Mary's marriage, appears Philip briefy considered offering marriage to Elizabeth in 1558, and Philip strongly desired to maintain peace with England, persuading the Pope not to excommunicate her, believing that she might be brought to Catholicism, however, break in relations meant that he would not pursue return of Calais in 1559

-England's relationship with Spain was complicated by 4 key factors:

1. Philip leading Catholic monarch in Europe, wouldn't tolerate Elizabeth's Anglican religion forever

2. Philip ruled Netherlands  important to England as a trading partner as 3/4 of English cloth passed through the Port of Antwerp making it essential territory to English economy, Netherlands also a base to launch an invasion of England, made worse because Netherlands had embraced Protestantism and wanted independence from Spanish rulers, members of the Privy Council wanted to help them, Philip would not tolerate this

3. 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis made peace between Europe's 2 most Catholic power, and if they found a common cause to attack England it would be crushed

4. Wealth from the New World not only significantly increased Philip's wealth but became a source of competition amongst Spain and England as seafaring nations

-Nonetheless in 1558 Philip was not openly hostile to England, he preferred an independent England ruled by a heretic than one dominated by France, prepared to tolerate regime rather than drive into the arms of the enemy

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The Main Contenders (2):

-France: England's traditional enemy and claim to the French throne had led to conflict for centuries, Auld Alliance threatned North borders, Anglo-Spanish between 1554-1558 led to the loss of Calais in the French War, although terms in the Cateau-Cambresis allowed it to be returned in 8 years or if England payed 500,000 crowns, provided they kept 8 years of peace, and Elizabeth was keen to engineer a situation in which it might be returned to England

-Situation was complicated in 1559 when Henry II died and his son Francis I replaced him along with his wife Mary Queen of Scots who had her own claim to the throne as great-grand daughter of Henry VII, Francis I alsobrought about the rise of the Ultra-Catholic Guise family because his youth and inexperience meant that he relied on the advice of the uncle of this family

-Mary Guise (second wife of James V of Scotland, mother of QOS and ruled a regent from 1554-1560 until the Scottish Lords overthrew her) also ruled as regent of Scotland in her daughter's absence, and Mary QOS assertion of her claim to the throne would be a massive threat to England, and her later role played a key role in Philip launcing the Armada in 1588

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (12)

The Main Contenders (3):

-Scotland: Mary Guise ruled Scotland as regent for her daughter, after Mary QOS coronation as Queen of France, the Guise family were keen to advance Mary's claim to the throne and use it as a tool in French foreign affairs

-However before any progress could be made Mary Guise's regency was destroyed by a revolt in Scotland, as a result of which the Protestant Lords took control

-This offered a great advantage to Elizabeth in that they could be relid upon to forge friendly relations with England, however the French were unlikley to allow the Auld Alliance to be destoryed without attempting to restore it

-Therefore shortly after her acession Elizabeth was to be confronted with conflict on her doorstep, and one in which it would difficult to stand aloof from

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (13)

The Scottish Rebellion 1559-1560 (1):

-Rebellion started after John Knox returned from Geneva to Scotland, and preached a sermon encouraging the destruction of church decoration/images, Protestant Lords of the Congregation took this as a signal to being military action against the rule of the Guise family

-In October 1559 they suspended the regent and took full control, however it was highly unlikely that the Guise family would submit to this situation, and retaliation was expected

-Privy Council members like William Cecil favoured intervention with the intention of supporting the Scottish rebels in order to drive the French out of the British Isles and a Protestant Scotland a potential ally for England, so he sought Elizabeth to provide aid for the Lords

-Not so simple for Elizabeth as although she sould see the advantage of removing French control in Scotland, she did not want to involved herself in a war with an uncertain outcome and opposed intervention on behalf of rebels who had overthrown her anointed ruler, diplomatic relations were the Queen's prerogative and ultimately she made the decisions

-However she did take the advice from her Council, and in the end Cecil persuaded her to support intervention, he drafted a letter that hinted at his resignation and faced with the loss of her Chief Minister, Elizabeth comprimised and acted on the advice she was given

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (14)

The Scottish Rebellion 1559-1560 (2):

-February 1560 Elizabeth agreed the Treaty of Berwick with the Scottish Lords, providing financial and military help from England in order that Scotland should finally be rid of French control, and in March 1560 English troops arrived to assist the Scots in their blockade of Leith

-Strategy failed, but with the French fleet lost in the storm and the death of Mary of Guise, Cecil was able to bring both sides to negotiations, and under the Treaty of Edinburgh all foreign troops were to withdraw from Scotland and the Scottish Lords of the Congregations were to form a provisional government

-Elizabeth's intervention was instrumental in fulfilling one of her key aims, the security of her northern Scottish border, and Elizabeth could expect to maintain friendly relations with the Protestant government in Scotland

-Even though the return of Mary QOS in 1561 brought fresh dangers, in the immediate period Elizabeth would benefit from the reality of the Scottish reformation and Protestant domination in Scotland

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The French Wars of Religion 1562-1564 (1):

-March 1562 religious civil war broke out in France, and although this reduced the immediate threat to England since France was focused on internal conflict, it raised new issues that Elizabeth and her Council were keen to address

-Conflicts between the Ultra-Catholic Duke of Guise and the House of Bourbon, who supported the French Hugenots (Members of the Protestant Church in France who believed in Calvinist doctrine) drove the religious war

-Elizabeth found himself under pressure to intervene on behalf of the Hugenots from individuals from people like Cecil and Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (English French Ambassador) and also Robert Dudley Earl of Lecister who seeked political power for himself

-Elizabeth needed less persuading this time, victory in Scotland spurred her on, but was primarily motivated by the potential to regain Calais or another useful French port, and did not relish the idea of Guise victory 

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The French Wars of Religion 1562-1564 (2):

-Under the Treaty of Hampton Court, Elizabeth promised military aid to the Hugenots, which would take the form of 6000 troops and a loan of £3000, and in return England would hold Le Havre and Dieppe until Calais was restored

-Unlike Scotland the campaign failed as the Hugenot army was routed in the field and Elizabeth overstreched herself by trying to exchange Le Havre for Calais

-The consequence of this was with the death of the Duke of Guise, as the two french parties united to drive out the English, and this combined with an outbreak of plague in Le Havre led to the surrender of the English in July 1563, th hostilities brought to an end in the Peace of Troyes (1564)

-By intervening for the Hugenots, Elizabeth had broke the terms of the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis and forfeited her right to the return of Calais, and this unsuccessful venture into European diplomacy confirmed her conservative beliefs that intervention should be avoided since the outcome could not be guranteed, and in the future it would be more difficult for the Council to achieve the Queen's agreement for direct involvement in conflict

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (17)

Elizabeth and the Netherlands 1562-1572 (1):

-Elizabeth's French intervention also offended Philip, who saw it as clear proof that she was a heretic sponsoring Protestant rebels, and although before 1570 Philip opposed excommunication there was a significant detoriation between England and Spain in this relationship and this also had a negative effect on England's trading relations with the Netherlands, as Philip believed that Elizabeth used English traders to forment Protestant rebellion in the Netherlands

-Incidents of piracy in the Channel were common and Cardinal Granvelle (Philip's ruler in the Netherlands) believed they were carried out at Elizabeth's sanction

-In 1563 he used the exscuse of an outbreak of plague in London to ban the import of English cloth, and Elizabeth retaliated by prohibiting all imports from the Netherlands

-Economic consequences were severe and both countries suffered and within a year were forced to back down, however the resumption of trade did not reconcile the underlying differences and the hostilities escalated in the following years

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (18)

Elizabeth and the Netherlands 1562-1572 (2):

-In 1566 there was an outbreak of Calvinist revolts in Dutch towns, intially Philip responded with religious toleration before gathering his forces and in 1567 sent the Duke of Alba to crush Protestantism in the Netherlands

-Elizabeth was concerned as the presence of such a large Spanish force across the Channel was a signicant threat to England, and Elizabeth and her Council feared that once the Netherlands were subdued it could be turned against England

-Situation was not helped by many Protestant refugees from the conflict flooding into England and although she publicly condemned the revolt of her subjects against their anointesd lord, these protestants in England looked like she was harbouring rebels 

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (19)

Elizabeth and the Netherlands 1562-1572 (3):

-Duke of Alba seized the initiative and by 1568 Spanish victory looked iminent with leading rebels executed and William of Orange defeated in battle and Elizabeth was under pressure from her Council to intervene, but she was detemined to resist

-She had learned from the French Wars of Religion and did not want to repeat her mistakes, and she also had a clear perspective of the situation, as although she disapproved of Spanish action in the Netherlands she knew that the aid of an expeditionary force would not be sufficient to establish independence in the Netherlands and there was always a chance it would create a void that the French would fill, and on balance she preferred Spanish to French rule

-She instead opted for a policy of harassment, which included seamen like Francis Drake attacking Spanish shipping in the New World, and in 1568 a storm drove Spanish ships to take refuge in English ports in Devon/Cornwall that were carrying 400,000 gold florins headed for the Netherlands to pay for the Spanish army

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (20)

Elizabeth and the Netherlands 1562-1572 (4):

-Elizabeth seized the gold and struck a blow against the Duke of Alba, as the gold was a loan from Geonese bankers and since it was technically there property she could justifiably take over the loan herself, despite originally agreeing to send the ships to the Duke of Alba as quickly as possible

-Controversy surronding this, difficult to know if she decided to do it or if Cecil convinced her to do so, but either way it is clear that she did not expect any serious repercussions

-Philip was outraged, and on the advice of the Spanish ambassador to England De Spes he responsed mercilessly with a seizure of English ships and property in Spain and the Netherlands, and within weeks a trade embargo existed between the two countries, their relationship now plunged into crisis as each side looked for a new way to antagonise the other

-Elizabeth was excommunicated in 1570, and at this point Philip was still not ready to support this but he was increasingly ready to support Catholic plots against Elizabeth, as not only did he authorize the Duke of Alba to send financial aid to English Catholics but also promised 10,000 tropps to support the Ridolfi plot in 1571

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (21)

Elizabeth and the Netherlands 1562-1572 (5):

-Elizabeth contiuned to encourage the activities of the Sea Beggars (pirates who made a living capturing shipping in the North Sea) in raiding Spanish shipping

-She also considered the possibility of an alliance with France, including a marriage to the Duke of Anjou, and in 157 she concluded the Treaty of Blois in which France/England established a league to defend themselves against Spanish aggression

-In 1572 Elizabeth expelled the Sea Beggars from English ports, and they returned to the Netherlands and were instrumental in encoruaging renewed revolt with their capture of the Port of Brill

-Historians are not clear as to Elizabeth's intentions with this, perhaps she was tired of their unruly behaviour and believed their expulsion would be viewed favourably by the Spanish, while other historians argue that it was a deliberate move to incite further rebellion, however what is certain is that the return of the Sea Beggars lead to a delcine in relations between Elizabeth and Philip

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1553-1572 (22)

The renewal of relations with France 1570-1572 (1):

-Detoriation of relations with Spain led to fresh efforts to woo the French, as English security dependent on peace with the Netherlands and the prevention of an alliance between France and Spain, and the collapse of Anglo-Spanish relation necessitated a fresh accord with France

-1570 Elizabeth still young enough to bear children, offer of her hand in marriage was a valuable asset in diplomatic discussions, it also satisified the desires of the Privy Council who were anxious about Elizabeth's question of succession

-Elizabeth entered into a round of marriage negotiations with Henry Duke of Anjou (third son of Henry II and Catherine de Medici, leader of the royal army against the Hugenots and he was a Catholic) the son of Catherine de Medici (Married Henry II, had 4 sons who reigned during a period of almost constant civil/religious war in France, and is associated with order the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572)

-Unlikley Elizabeth intended to marry Anjou, but negotiations did lead to the signing of the Treaty of Blois and reduced the influence of the Guise faction, Elton also states that marriage negotiations helped to keep France quiet while Cecil grappled with the biggest threats of Elizabeth's reign thus far-The Northern Rebellion 1569 and the Ridolfi Plot 1571

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The renewal of relations with France 1570-1572 (2):

-Treaty of Blois 1572: France abandoned the claims of Mary QOS to the throne of England and France and England formed a defensive league against potential Spanish aggression directed at either party

-Treaty did not last long and was swept away under a fresh insurgence of Catholic violence against Protestantism, but at the critical time when Elizabeth was beset by troubles arising out of the Papal Bull of Excommunication in 1570 and it provided her with some protection against a potential Franco-Spanish Catholic alliance

-In August 1572 the French Wars of Religion were to be settled by a marriage between the French King's sister and the Protestant Henry of Navarre, Paris subsquently was filled with Hugenots there to celebrate the wedding, however Catherine de Medici believed their leader Admiral Gaspard was getting to close to her son Charles IX, and she gave orders for his assasination

-Although the first attempt failed the second succeeded, and this was seen as a general signal for the slaughter of French Protestants, and it is believed around 3000-15,000 people died, if massacres elsewhere in France are taken into account

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The renewal of relations with France 1570-1572 (3):

-Elizabeth's Council horrified by this event, to Protestants a clear sign of what would happen if Mary QOS came to the throne in England, renewed calls for assistance to Hugenots, and the Dutch Calvinists by militant Protestant members of the Council, however Elizabeth's previous failure was fixed in her mind, didn't want to lose French alliance that counterbalanced Spanish domination of the Netherlands, took defensive neutrality and ignored religious passions

-John Guy six key principles of English diplomacy that arose because of the massacre:

1. England would not intervene directly in the Netherlands

2. Volunteers could be used to assist the Dutch

3. A defensive Anglo-French entent would be deployed against Spain

4. France should be encouraged to the help the Dutch but not embark for the Netherlands

5. Spain should be persuaded to return Netherlands to it's previous semi-autonomous position

6. French influence in Scotland should be permanently excluded

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The Deposition of Mary, Queen of Scots:

-In 1561 Mary QOS returned to Scotland to take her position as Queen, death of her husband the French King had lost her support in France, and although her presence presented new dangers to Elizabeth, she had accepted the reformation and was now trying to find a suitor

-Elizabeth suggested Robert Dudley, but Mary QOS instead married Henry Darnley (great grandson of Margaret Tudor) and this increased pressures on Elizabeth because he had a distant claim to the throne, and in 1566 Mary gave birth to her son James which secured her claim to succession, however Darnely was an unstable drunk and the marriage was already breaking down before James was born and Darnley was murdered in 1567

-Many suspected the Protestant Earl of Bothwell, and many believed Mary was an accomplice when she married Bothwell in the summer, however the Scottish lords rose against Mary and forced her to abdicate in favour of her son

-Mary escaped from her imprisonment across the border of England where she sought sanctuary in her cousin's realm, and her presence in England has upset the delicate religious balance that had been achieved between Elizabeth and her Catholic subject, and this led to the Northern Rebellion

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The Papal Bull of Excommunication 1570:

-Northern rebellion demonstrated the real danger that Mary's presence had in England, and although Elizabeth was able to quash the rebellion (700 executed) she could not get rid of Mary QOS because of the support she recieved from fellow Catholic monarchs and the Pope

-Nothern Earls had appealed to Pope Pius V for help, and while this did not help the rebellion because it was defeated by the time it reached the Pope in February 1570, Pius V responded with a papal bull of excommunication (Regnans in Excelsis), which meant that Elizabeth was seen under papal authority as "the pretended Queen of England" and the bull deprived her title to the throne and proclaimed that subject were no longer obliged to obey her laws, and if they continued their allegiance they were condemned to anathema (sentence of the damned to hell with the devil)

-Bull played Catholic subjects in a difficult position, as they could not be loyal to both Queen and Pope, opened up an influx of Jesuits and Seminary Priests, and although Elizabeth tried to play down it's significance neither Council nor Parliament did, and when Parlaiment first met in 1571 they all took the Oath of Supremacy for the first time and they passed a Treason Act (1571) making any written or spoken assertion that Elizabeth was not the Queen a treasonable offence

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The Ridolfi Plot 1571:

-Centred on the plan to free Mary, marry her to the Duke of Norfolk and secure her accession to the English throne, plot first forged by Florentine banker Roberto Ridolfi and gained the support of Philip of Spain, it's potential therefore was even more threatening than the Northern Rebellion

-The Duke of Alba was to lead 6000 Spanish troops to England from the Netherlands, however either Philip or Ridolfi backed down because the troops did not materialise and the Council uncovered the plot after Mary's ambassador John Leslie was interrogated

-Plot marked the end for Norfolk who was executed, Council also wanted to deal with Mary the same way but refused, and even a bill removing Mary's title to the throne was vetoed by Elizabeth herself and Mary would remain in capitvity in England

-Ridolfi Plot was soon followed by the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, and this confirmed Cecil's view that Protestantism was under attack from a murderous Catholic conspiracy and Mary's presence in England meant England itself was under threat

-Elizabeth did not react with haste however, often taking a middle-path so that she prevented a violent diplomatic response to both events, and historian Guy argues that the Council later would no longer be divided by pro and anti Spanish opinion, but by religion and realpolitik,that is between intervention and a defensive strategy

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (1)

Elizabeth's Diplomatic intentions 1572-1585:

-In face of all diplomatic aggression Elizabeth was not inclined to respond aggressively, and Guy has claimed that she preferred a tactic called "Defensive Neutrality"

-She refused to be persuaded by the Council to declare her support for the Calvinists in the Netherlands and sought to persuade Philip to withdraw his forces from the provinces and to allow the Netherlands to settle back into semi-autonomy they had enjoyed under Charles V

-In order to achieve this she had keep a more watchful eye on the ambitions of the French, and it was even less desirable that the French should gain control of the Netherlands and extend the mastery of the southern Channel coast even further

-The policy was not successful in achieving it's aims, as by the 1580s Elizabeth's schemes (whil avoiding direct intervention with the Netherlands) would be sufficient to persuade Philip that England was the greatest stumbling block in his attempts to pacify the region

-With the growth of the influence of the Catholic league, Philip would embark on the "Enterprise of England", the preparations for a great armard to invade England, and in respect to thsi by 1585 Elizabeth's diplomatic position would reach crisis point

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (2)

How/why did diplomatic relations with the French resume 1573-1581 (1):

-Although St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre marked a significant crisis in relations with France, Elizabeth refused to allow it to dictate policy, or as Guy says "moral outrage was tempered by realpolitik"

-France was necessary to England to balance Spanish aggression and Elizabeth therefore continued to court the French by means of marriage negotiations, the new suitor being the Duke of Alencon, youngest son of Catherine

-In the early years Elizabeth was interested in the prospect of marriage, but as time progressed this waned so that the last visit to the Duke in 1581 was seen as purely diplomatic expedient

-The Privy Council had grave misgivings about Elizabeth's marriage into the Catholic house of Valois, fearing French domination of English policy and the destruction of the Protestant Church

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How/why did diplomatic relations with the French resume 1573-1581 (2):

-Although a marriage would offer the oppurtunity to control Alencon's interference with the Netherlands, as well as reducing the power of the Catholic League, the disadvantages outweighed the gains that could be made

-Consequently Elizabeth gave way to the will of the Council and no marriage took place

-Alencon was used as a tool, however, to bind France to England and prevent the development of a Franco-Spanish alliance, and this is seen most obviously during the revolt of the Netherlands from 1576-1583, when Elizabeth subsidised his expedition instead of providing her own troops

-Alencon died in 1584 and after this date Elizabeth could no longer use the marriage as a diplomatic tool

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Conflict over the Netherlands 1573-75:

-Elizabeth's policy of harrasment had led to Philip imposing an embargo on English trade and neither side was prepared to do battle whilist both sides relied on trade between England the the Nertherlands and therefore a comprimse needed to be made

-Elizabeth's policy of allowing English privateers so cloe to the channel to Spanish ships helped to persuade Philip that concessions were necessary and so in 1574 he lifted the trade embargo

-The terms of the Treaty of Bristol (1574) settled the gold dispute and English rebels were banished from the Netherlands, also English protestants in the Netherlands were allowed to pratice their religion

-In return, Elizabeth closed harbours to Dutch rebels and refused them any assistance, as well as agreeing to withdraw support on Spanish raiding in the Indies in the Convetion of Nymegan (1573)

-Although Elizabeth's Privy Council still wanted to give support to the Dutch rebels, it seemed as if the two monarchs could be satisfied with a compromise

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The Revolt of the Netherlands 1576-1579 (1):

-It was the unstable situation in the Netherlands that led to resurgence of hostility between England and Spain, Philip's subjugation of the Netherlands after the Revolt of 1566 had been incomplete and although William of Orange had been defeated in battle but refused to give up

-He actively sought assistance in his struggle against the Spanish and the oppurtunity arose in 1576 when the Spanish army in the Netherlands mutined because they had not been paid, this act known as the "Spanish Fury" resulted in Spanish troops sacking Antwerp and so united the 17 provinces of the Netherlands in rebellion against Spain

-The Estates General (Parliament) of the Netherlands demanded that all foreign troops should be expelled and that their "traditional liberties" should be restored, and Elizabeth supported these demands and offered a loan of £100,000 towards it, as well as warning Henry III of France not to intervene in the Netherlands, threatening force if he did and thereby moving further towards supporting the Netherlands than she had ever done before

-Elizabeth interceded with the Spanish to persuade them to accept a treaty known as the Pacification of Ghent, and the reality of the Spanish Fury meant that Philip had to accept the situation for now, although that was soon about to change

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The Revolt of the Netherlands 1576-1579 (2):

-In February 1577 Elizabeth signed an accord (the Perpetual Edict) agreeing to comply with the terms of the Pacification of Ghent, by the autumn of 1577 Spanish finances had recovered to a degree that permitted a renewed campaign in the Netherlands, and a new commanded arrived in the form of Don Juan of Austria, and he was the new Governor-General of the Netherlands and brought a Spanish army with him that led to an outbreak of war in the Netherlands

-Elizabeth warned Philip to withdraw Don Juan/abide by the Pacification of Ghent but no avail, and the Privy Council discussed terms for an Anglo-Dutch alliance which Guy argues they were unanimous for, Elizabeth however maintaned her stance against war with an uncertain outcome

-Instead she opted for a new version of harrassment, the sanctioned use of 6000 English/Scottish volunteers led by mercenary John Casimir (Convinced Calvinist, although his policy of destroying Churches in the Walloon province encouraged divisions in the rebels and led to the sourthern states meeting an accord with Spain

-She also financed Francis Drake's navigation of the globe and gave him the authority to attack Spanish shipping, doing serious damage to Spanish finances when he captured a galleon carrying silver bullion of the Pacific Coast, knighting in 1581 implied Elizabeth supported him

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (7)

Revolt in the Netherlands 1576-79 (3):

-William of Orange was disappointed by Elizabeth's lacklustre response to his difficulties, and therefore turned to France for aid and found it in the form of Alencon, who accepted sovereignty over the the Netherlands with the title "Defender of the Liberties of the Low Countries", and this was more dangerous to Elizabeth than Spanish control and so she resumed marriage negotiations in order to achieve a degree of control over his actions in the regions

-In October 1578 Don Juan died and was replaced by the Duke of Parma, and the Catholic Wallon provinces did not fully support the objectives of the revolt and they seperated themselves form the Estates General and the northern provinces made peace with Spain in early 1579

-Elizabeth's policy of sponsoring Casimir instead of sending her own forces backfired, as Casimir and his troops were feverant Calvinists and had attacked churches in the region, alienating the population of the region and driving them back into Spanish arms

-Alencon withdrew from the Netherlands/United Provinces, the remianing seven provinces in the north of the Netherlands were left to fend for themselves, assisted only by the fact that Philip was too occupied with events in Portugal to focus completely on the Netherlands at the time

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (8)

Spanish ascendancy 1580-1585 (1):

-Philip's power was significantly enhanced when he added Portugal to his empire in 1580, it gave him control over the Portuguese navy which meant he commaned sea forces comparable to that of England, and in Portugal had a prosperous trade with the East and would now enjoy its profits

-Elizabeth alarmed intially authorised Drake to seize the Azores (string of volcanic islands in the Atlantic belonging to Portugal) as base from which England could assist Don Antonio (Philip's rival for the crown of Portugal) but Philip announced this would essentially be a declaration of war, and she was forced to back down

-Elizabeth was unable to convince Philip over Portugal so fell back to supporting Alencon in a renewed attempt to establish independence in the Netherlands, and Elizabeth pledged £70,000 worth of subisidies for the intervention on a "supposed" marriage negotiation visit in England between August and October 1581

-Despite the subsidy Elizabeth was still not fully supportive of the Unitied provinces, and she retained her view that they were rebels against their anointed sovereign, and as a consequence she refused to be drawn into a full alliance against Spain, despite her Privy Council's protests

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Spanish ascendancy 1580-1585 (2):

-Alencon failed in the Netherlands, as his leadership was incompetent and soon led to quarrels with the Estates General and abdicated his position as the sovereign of the United Provinces, and so returned to France in 1583 and died in 1584

-One of the key reasons for his defeat in the Netherlands was the presence of the Duke of Parma, who was an excellant commander and used the much-feared and seemingly invincible Spanish tercios (mixed infantry formation of 300 professional soldiers including swordsman, pikeman and arquebusiers) to subdue the Dutch rebels

-Parma took Brabant and Flanders by force and then moved towards Antwerp, and Alencon waware that the "game was up", returned to France and Parma by 1584 was able to established Spanish hegemony over the Netherlands once more

-Guy argues that Philip was prepared to devote lots of resources to the recovery of the position in the Netherlands, and that bribes were often very effective in persuading rebels to change sides

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (10)

Spanish ascendancy 1580-1585 (3):

-The situation in the Netherlands became worse when a French Catholic Balathsar Gerard assasinated William of Orange in July 1584 after Philip had declared him an outlaw and offered a reward of 25,000 crowns for his death, and this plunged the Netherlands into a crisis

-The Protestant rebels had lost their leader and the manner in which he died confirmed the significance of the threat posed to all Protestants from Catholicism, and in England the Privy Council was convicned that Elizabeth herself was directly threatened and that the advance of Philip in the Netherlands had to be checked

-Death of Alencon changed the French succession and made Henry of Navarre heir to the French throne, and this alarmed the Guise faction who strengthend their position by reviving the French Catholic League in 1584, and in a secret agreement the Treaty of Joinville (1584) Philip pledged to assist the Guise party in it's plan to disinherit Navarre

-Reignited French Wars of religion, worked to Philip's advantage as this limited French chances in interfering in the Netherlands, and this threatened Elizabeth as alongside a Franco-Spanish Alliance, Philip seized English shipping docked in Spanish ports, and this conincided with Walsingham's discovery of the treaty that roused fear of a potential armada, and led the Privy Council to be believe decisive actions against Philip needed to be taken

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Spanish acendancy 1580-1585 (4):

-Privy Council was united in its opposition to Spain but still divided as to the measures that should be implemented, and up to 1585 the "neutralists" (embodied by Wiliam Cecil and Lord Burghley) had prevailed, believing that England needed to build up it's defences against a possible attack but that it should not take action that could provoke a response from Spain

-Elizabeth tended to side with this group, but in 1585 the "interventionists" (led by Walsingham and Cecil) gained the upper had, as they were certain that if Parma gained control of the Netherlands the next step would be attacking England so they should intervene on the rebel side, and because of this she was finally persuaded to take action

-Estates General seeking to heal the chasm created by the loss of it's leaders (Orange and Alencon) offered Elizabeth sovereignty of the Netherlands, and she did not accept the position but did sign the Treaty of Nonsuch (1585), promising direct intervetion from an English army of 6400 foot soldiers and 1000 cavarly of "quality and rank", and in return demanded the ports of Flushing and Brill as security for her expenditure, Elton criticises this, arguing that Elizabeth suffered by not investing into the war in the Netherlands, but in many senses her caution was good because she could afford to devote a bulk of her finances into a campaign where victory could not be guranteed/leave England exposed to the Spanish

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (12)

Lecister's Expedition to the Netherlands 1585-1587 (1):

-Robert Dudley (Lecister) was appointed as commander of the English forces and arrived in the Netherlands in September 1585, meanwhile Drake was instructed to put pressure on the Spanish by conducting raids on towns on the north-west coast of Spain

-The expedition in the Netherlands was not a success, as Elizabeth was uneuthusiastic and soon got cold feet, after only 6 weeks she rejected the arguments of the interventionists and opted once more for realpoltik and wanted to bring the Spanish back to the negotiation table

-Elizabeth gave order that Lecister was not to attack the Spanish but only defend the Dutch, and she was outraged when he accepted the position of Governor-General from the Estates General

-She claimed was explicitly against her orders and gave the impression that she had accepted sovereignty over the Netherlands and that Lecister was her viceroy, secretly behind Lecister's back she gave Lord Burghley permission to reopen talk with Parma

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (13)

Lecister's Expedition to the Netherlands 1585-1587 (2):

-Meanwhile Leicester's campaign floundered, as his euthsiasm for the Calvinist cause sponsored by the provinces of Utrecht and Friesland alienated the rich provinces of Holland and Zeeland, and this was further exacerbated by his order to suspend trade with the Spanish which angered the wealthy businessmen of the reason

-The final clear evidence to show his lack of judgement as a leader with the appointment in 1587 of the Catholic Sir William Stanley to control Denever, and he had fought as a mercenary on the Spanish side and he soon outraged the Estates-General by handing the town over to the Spanish

-Guy also argues that one of the main reasons the English intervention failed was the incompatibility between Leicester and Elizabeth's aims, Leicester wanting to drive out the Spanish and establish control over the Netherlands whereas Elizabeth wanted it to return to it's semi-autonomous state

-Leicester returned to England having completely failed his mission, and had now pushed the relations with Spain to crisis point

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (14)

The Domestic Catholic Threat (1):

-Acting upon the order of the Council of Trent to re-convert the Protestants of Europe, in 1568 William Allen (refused to take Oath of Supremacy to Elizabeth, wrote in support of the armada and was made a Cardinal in 1587) set up a college in Douai in the Netherlands

-College enjoyed the patronage and protection of Philip, and the first of these seminary priests arrived in England in 1574, and by 1580 there around 100

-These priests were particuarly dangerous to Elizabeth because they were trained in scripture and so they could rise to the challenges posed by Protestants well versed in the Bible and thus undermined the Church Settlement

-This was still in the process of being embedded in England making trained oppsition to it more dangerous, and they were also able to offer confession, an attractive prospect to those who had not fully accepted the settlement and who feared for the conditions of their souls

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (15)

The Domestic Catholic threat (2):

-St. Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus in 1534 originally to do missionary work in Jerusalem, however soon the Jesuits were soon directed to focus on stopping the spread of Protestantism in Europe

-In 1580 Jesuits arrived in England, and they were trained to carry out spiritual excercises designed to cultivate a profound religious experience

-They were very effective in reviving latent belief in former Catholics and hence were a significant threat to the stability of Elizabeth realm, the first two jesuits to arrive established a series of safe houses where jeuits could hide from the authorities:

1. Robert Parsons: Senior jesuit who arrived in 1580, fled after Campion's death and supported William Allen's stance over the armada, believing only armed intervention could restore Catholicism

2. Edmund Campion: Converted to Catholicism in Douai and ented the jesuit order arriving in England in 1580, captured and taken to the the Tower and questioned in Elizabeth's presence, he affirmed as rightful Queen but despite wealth/titles he refused to renounce the Catholic faith, and so was hung, drawn and quartered in December 1581

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (16)

The Domestic Catholic threat (3):

-Arguably not threatening as Jesuits and Priests rejected a political agenda, their interest was in religion, however as the Conflict in the Netherlands intensified and Elizabeth's government could no longer ignore "the enemy within", and the priests themselves increasingly found themselves in struggle, William Allen in 1588 declaring Catholics rise up against Elizabeth

-Walsingham's network of spies proved adept at tracing Jesuit priests, and Edmund Campion was executed in 1581 for refursing to accept the Anglican Church Settlement, and subsuquent acts were passed in Parliament in order to outlaw the actions of the Priests/Jesuits

-The Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's Subjects in their due Obedience (1581): declared it was treason to seek to convert a subject to Catholicism

-Act Against jesuits, Seminary priests and such other disobedient persons (1585): ordered any Catholic priest who had been ordained since 1558 to leave the country in 40 days or be declared a traitor

-As a result around 250 people were executed (180 being priests) and the population remained loyal, the recusancy fine being increased from a shilling to £20 a month, ensuring a majority of Catholics attended the Anglican services

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (17)

The Throckmorton Plot 1583-1586:

-Execution of Norfolk after Ridolfi Plot had not deterred Mary QOS attempts to assert her claim to the throne, and she had powerful friends on the continent who were prepared to remove Elizabeth

-In 1583 Walsingham discovered such a plot, as the Catholic Duke of Guise and Mendoza planned to reassert Catholic control in Scotland and use it as a base for the invasion of England, with the intention of putting Mary on the throne

-Walsingham uncovered this after arresting Francis Throckmorton, and English Catholic who acted as intermediary between Mary and Mendoza, and the plot confirmed the Privy Council's worst fears that an alliance between France and Spain would be directed against Protestant England

-The reaction was severe, but once again Mary escaped with her life, as Elizabeth maintained her attitude that nothing could touch one of "God's anointed", Mendoza was expelled from England the Privy Council drew up the Bond of Association

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (18)

The Bond of Association 1584:

-Danger at Elizabeth loomed large in 1584; Parma was successfully re-conquering the Netherlands, in 1583 John Somerville was arrested for waving a pistol at Elizabeth and declaring his intent to kill her, in 1584 William of Orange was assasinated and the interrogation of Throckmorton had implicated the Earls of Northumberland and Arundel in the Ridolfi Plot and led to their arrest

-Burghley and Walsingham subsuquently drafted the Bond of Association, the signatories to the Bond swore to defend Elizabeth's life and to prevent a "pretended successor" from attempting to take the throne by means of plots/assasination, and the original wording implied both Mary and James VI of Sctoland would be destroyed if a plot, successful or not, was uncovered

-Guy describes the assocaition as a "political vigilante group", thousands of men signing it and Elizabeth claimed to be ignorant of it's existence until she saw member's seals attached to it

-This showed the situation was grave, as this was not an act drawn up by Parliament but a "lynch law", nevertheless the threats to Elizabeth's life and the consequences this would have for the realm without a clear succession were apparent

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (19)

The Act for the Preservation of the Queen's Safety (1585)/The Treaty of Berwick (1586):

-The bill for the Act for the Preservation of the Queen's Safety was presented to Parliament when it opened in November 1585, along with the bill to outlaw Priests/Jesuits, and it allowed James VI to be exempt from his mother's plots so only Mary QOS was barred from succession

-Guise plan to re-take Scotland failed and Scotland remained firmly in Protestant control, and this gave the Privy Council the opportunity to consider both the security of the realm and the question of succession, England and Scotland signed a mutual defensive alliance pact to gurantee aid should an invasion of either homeland take place

-Under the terms of the Treaty of Berwick of 1586, James VI of Scotland was to be paid an annual pension of £4000 from the English state, and he was also won over by a letter from Elizabeth promising that nothing would be done that threatened his title to the English throne

-Elton claims "the English found James much readier to abandon his mother than they had expected", and the Treaty of Berwick therefore secured the border and went a long way to easing fears about succession

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (20)

The Babington Plot 1586:

-Walsingham was convinced that there were men plotting to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, but he needed proof, Mary had been moved into the custody of Sir Amyas Paulet, who kept her isolated from the outside world at Chartley Hall in Staffordshire, Paulet was a radical purtian and proved impervious to her charm, and  checked all her correspondence

-Walsingham's opportunity to trap Mary came after he arrested Catholic exile Gilbert Gifford in 1585, and Gifford confessed to having plotted on Mary's behalf an agreed to act as a double agent for Walsingham as a condition of his release, and his method of communication with Mary made her believe that she could correspond freely having avoided Paulet's checks

-Mary's complicity in the plots against Elizabeth was finally discovered when she agreed to the terms of the Babington Plot, Antony Babington (Catholic gentry) was persuaded to lead an insurrection of English Catholics to conincide with an invasion led by the Catholic League, the plot having both Spanish and Papal support and the services of assassin John Savage (ex-soldier who swore to kill Elizabeth)

-Mary agreed wholeheartedly to the plot and wrote emphasising the need for foriegn support, Walsingham now had the proof he needed to remove Mary QOS

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (21)

The Trial and Execution of Mary QOS 1586-1587 (1):

-Elizabeth had reservations about Mary's trial, but despite thise Mary was sent to Fotheringhay Castle where he trial began in October, she questioned the legality of the trial arguing that as QOS she was not subject to English law, however she was persuaded to mount a defence otherwise it would be seen as an admission of guilt

-Mary's guilt was evident from the Babington letter, and would have been executed at once under the Act for the Preservation of the Queen's Safety had they not been stalled by Elizabeth because the letters had not been written by Mary herself but dictated

-Although Elizabeth agreed to allow the commissioners to sentence Mary on 25th October, she still delayed putting her seal on the death warrant because in spite of the clear threat to her person, Elizabeth's conviction that no one could execute an anointed monarch prevailed

-This is not to say she was sympathetic to Mary, as she sent word to Paulet that she might "do away with Mary" according to the terms of the Bond of Association, but Paulet would not agree to this measure

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (22)

The Trial and Execution of Mary QOS 1586-1587 (2):

-In the end the Privy Council took the initative, William Cecil had drawn up the death warrant in December 1586 and in the atmosphere of panic in February when rumours swept the country that the Spanish had invaded, Elizabeth was persuaded to sign it

-Although she ordered that it should not yet be sealed, William Davinson (secretary to Walsingham) had it sealed and dispactched, and it was then decided that Elizabeth should not be informed until the execution had taken place, when the execution took place in February 8th 1587, Mary was dressed in red to symbolise a Catholic martyr

-When Elizabeth discovered this she flipped out, and refused to have any contact with Cecil for a month and had Davinson sent to the Tower and although he was released 18 months later he never regained his position

-The execution of Mary had gone against Elizabeth's dearest principles, nevertheless he councillors celebrated the death of an enemy, however the manner in which Mary was killed also increased the danger to Elizabeth, as she bequeathed her claim to the throne to Philip II, giving him justification to launch his "Enterprise of England"

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (23)

Reasons for the Enterprise of England:

-Execution of Mary QOS had provided him justification to invade

-Began compiling intelligence reports/plans in 1585, having contemplated launching it since 1583

-Struggle with the Ottoman Empire had ended successfully with the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, and prevented the Ottomans from dominating the Mediterranean Sea

-More significantly, the conclusion of peace with the Turks in 1585 had freed Philip of his concerns on the south and so enabled him to turn the full weight of his attention to the pressing concerns in the north; namely the Netherlands and Elizabeth's dangerous influnce of the region

-Her Anglican Church Settlement was unacceptable to the strong Catholic view of the King of Spain, and she was also excommunicated and essentially a heretic so needed to be stopped

-Also aggrieved by the support she gave to Francis Drake and John Hawkins, whose activities in the Caribbean amounted to no more than piracy in his mind, and by 1587 preperations for an attack on England were progressing rapidly

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (24)

Spanish Forces:

-May 1558 Medina-Sidonia has assembled a fleet of 65 galleons off the coast of Lisbon to be supported by more than 60 smaller vessels, and they were manned with 7000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers, Parma had also mustered a force of 17,000 men in the ports of Flanders, including crack troops from Spain as well as English exiles, Italians, Germans and Walloons

English Forces:

-The nobility/bishops/privy councillors had called up to 16,000 men to act as Elizabeth's personal bodyguard, but these men were of dubious quality, and the council also estaimated that it could call upon the services of 135 merchant ships if it needed to

-Elizabeth had 34 well-armed ships and could call upon another 30, however they were smaller than the Spanish ships so were easier to manoeuvre than the Armada in the narrow channel, and more importantly it boosted superior long-range guns, 153 compared to 21 in the Armada

-If Parma's invasion should suceed, Elizabeth would have to rely on a local muster of "trained bands" whose quality was often patchy, Elizabeth had 27,000 infantry and 2500 cavarly in the northern border and the east and southern coast, as well as an army of 16,000 at Tilbury

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (25)

Co-ordination of the Armada/disadvantageous factors:

-The timing of the plan would be crucial as Parma's troops needed to land on the southern coast at high tide because the huls of the boats were too deep to land in shallow water, and before this could happen Sidonia needed to clear the channel of opposition

-It took no account of factors out of control like the need for good weather, and it relied on excellant communication between Parma and Sidonia

-In addition, while Sidonia was an expert commander he had no previous naval experience, and this could be a serious disadvantage when was commanding one of the main fleets

-Philip intended to co-ordinate the forces of Sidonia and Parma, as Sidonia was to defeat the English at sea which would allow Parma to transport his troops (17,000) across the Channel and invade England with little opposition

-6000 soldiers from the Armada would then reinforce Parma's troops once a foothold had been gained in England

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (26)

Catholic influence upon the Armada:

-In late 1586 Philip's Armada received the blessing of Pope Sixtus V (Divine Acceptance) and he also promised a million ducats to be paid when the Spanish troops landed in England

-Meanwhile William Allen raised to the position of cardinal in 1587, gave his wholehearted backing to the venture, calling on English Catholics to rise up against Elizabeth, and such the full weight of the Catholic Church was behind the venture

-The venture assumed that the Catholic population of England would welcome and support the Spanish when they landed, and this was to be encouraged by the rallying cry of William Allen

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (27)

The Antics of Drake:

-Invasion was planned for 1587, Philip's naval commander the Marquis of Santa Cruz was busy mustering men and ships, however in 1587 Francis Drake raided the the Spanish Port of Cadiz destroying up to 36 Spanish ships, and this along with Drake's other actions immediately following the attack on Cadiz, meant that the Spanish had to postpone their invasion by a year

-After his raid on Cadiz, Drake sailed to Cape Vincent where he destroyed around 1600-1700 barrel stoves, which were essential in the manufacture of barrels for storage of supplies on ship, and then moved on to Azores where he captured a Portugues merchant ship with a rich cargo of spices and forced Santa Cruz to leave port to protect in the incoming silver fleet

-Drake's antics of 1587 are called the "singeing of the King of Spain's beard", and it gave extra time to the English to complete it's preparations for the attack and because the losses sustained by the Spanish weakened the Armada, when Sidonia replaced Santa Cruz in February 1588 after Cruz's death, he complained that supplies/guns were inadequate

-Whilst the Spanish fleet were anchored in Calais harbour, Drake launched a series of fire ships at them, and Sidonia mistook them for floating bombs and ordered his fleet to cut their anchors and move out of thie way, and this confusion also meant that the Spanish were no longer in their rigid formation

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Anglo-Spanish Relations 1573-1588 (28)

The Failure of the Armada:

-Armada first sighted off the Isles of Scilly on July 19th 1588, there were battles between English and Spanish ships as they travelled up the English Channel, the Armada failed in it's objective of destroying English ships as the English long-range guns prevented the Spanish from getting close enough to board the ships

-The Spanish fleet were hampered by English tactics that forced it to sail into prevailing winds, Medina-Sidonia anchored his fleet off Calais and called for Parma to move his troops across the channel, however all attempts at this proved fruitless

-After the fire ship incident, the major battle of the attempted invasion was fought just off Gravelines on 29th July, the English ships outgunned the Spanish fleet, and although Sidonia only lost 3 ships he was obliged to pull his fleet out of the thick of the battle

-At the end of the Battle of Gravelines, high winds drove the anchorless ships around the north of Scotland and west of Ireland, 1/2 of the fleet were battered and then sunk in the unfavourable conditions, hence the famous English celebration: "God blew and they were scattered"

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