Evolution of Government 1536-1547 Part 3

  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 14-03-14 09:24
Who is responsible for identifying a 'Tudor revolution in government'?
G.R. Elton
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When does Elton say that there was a Tudor revolution in government?
From 1532 to 1540 when Cromwell was Henry's chief minister.
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What is the gist of the tudor revolution in government?
That changes in these years that marked change from medieval to modern forms of government. Elton attached great importance to the role of Cromwell
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What four parts can Elton's theory of a revolution in government be broken down into?
Structure and organisation of central government, role of Parliament and the scope and authority of statute law, relationship between Church and State, extension of authority in regions
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Tudor Revolution in Government - Central Government
'Administrative revolution' with radical change in structure and organisation central government. Especially reorg. finance and creation Privy Council
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What was the result of changes in the structure and organisation of central government?
Government by the King was replaced by government under the King
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Tudor Revolution in Government - Parliament and Statute law
Concept of natural sovereignty,by using Parliament to enforce the Reformation, Crown emphasising that nothing lay outside parliamentary statute
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What was the result of changes in Parliament?
King and parliament had been replaced by king-in-parliament
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Tudor Revolution in Government - Church and State
By bringing Church under control of king, Royal Supremacy initiated jurisdictional revolution in relationship between Church and State. Independence of Church removed and balance of power favouring state.
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What was the result of changes in the relationship between Church and State?
Church and State had been replaced by Church in State`
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Tudor Revolution in Government - Extension of royal authority in regions
By bringing outlying regions under control, Cromwell aimed to create nation that was jurisdictional entity. Gave more authority and purpose to Council of North and reformed government of Wales by empowering the Council of Wales and Marches.
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What was a short lived extension of royal authority in the regions by Cromwell?
Council of the West
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What was the result of the extension of royal authority in the regions?
A fragmented state was replaced by a unitary state
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What does Elton argue about the developments in government under Cromwell?
That these developments were one of the two or three major turning points in the history of British politics
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What do some historians that do not support Elton's theory say?
They protest against the term 'revolution' which suggests far-reaching, radical and innovative changes. Prefer use of evolution as changes were measured, piecemeal and conservative.
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When was the last great marcher lord of the Welsh marches executed?
Duke of Birmingham, 1521
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What were the Welsh marches?
A patchwork of local lordships that had been gradually taken under royal control
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Who were the main landowners in the South West in 1536?
Duchy of Cornwall under the Crown. Main landholders were Courtenays, Earls of Devon and Marquis of Exeter
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Who dominated East Anglia in 1536?
Howards, Dukes of Norfolk and Earls of Surrey
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Which areas constituted the northern marches in 1536?
Counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland along with Liberty of Redesdale.
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What did each of the three northern marches have in 1536?
Wardens responsible for defence and law/order
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Who traditionally controlled the East and Middle marches?
Earl of Northumberland (Percy family)
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Who, in 1536, was traditionally the Warden of the West March?
Usually a Dacre or Neville
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Who were the dominant family in Lancashire?
Stanleys - Earls of Derby
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When did Henry add to the established families in arwea (Earls of Derby and Earls of Shrewbury) and how?
In 1525 created his friend Henry Clifford as Earl of Cumberland.
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How were Cromwell's changes in the hope of a unitary state encouraged and enabled?
By changes already taking place in the structure and attitudes of the 'knightly estate' and relationship without crown
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Without a police force of a standing army the co-operation of who was essential in enforcing royal authority?
The nobility and gentry - but also had to be aware of threat they posed if 'over mighty'
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Like his father, what did Henry VIII want to show to the nobility ?
That the route to power and privilege lay in service to the King and obedience to him.
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What policy of his father's did Henry VIII continue regarding service and reward?
Promoting talented servants regardless of origins, and ennobling men of gentry origins (and below - Cromwell)
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Although he was more generous in distributing lands and titles than his father, what kind of men were his new creations?
New men like Charles Brandon. Some such as Edward Seymour and William Parr benefited from king's marriages but most elevated for service given or expected.
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What happened in the case of suspicion of disloyalty?
Intimidation and in some cases death
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What was Henry's approach to service and reward supposed to demonstrate?
That any loyalty and service were more important than birth, inheritance and tradition
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Who suppressed the northern risings of 1536-7?
New men like Henry Clifford and Charles Brandon, alongside the heads of established families who had seen the benefits of loyalty such as the Earls of Derby.
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Why were the Stanleys created Earls of Derby, becoming a prominent family in Lancashire and Cheshire?
Due to support for Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth
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What is significant in 1537 regarding the men of the north?
No difficulty in finding able men willing to serve on reconstructed Council of North and most came from regional nobility and gentry.
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What converted some supporters of the Pilgrimage of Grace and other risings such as Sir Thomas Tempest into loyal administrators?
Demise of patron (Earl of Northumberland), concerns about the danger of popular unrest and the benefits of royal service
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What did Cromwell do in 1538 regarding magnate power?
Attack on leading magnate family in the SW, the Courtenays which cumulated in execution of the Marquis of Exeter (Henry Courtenay)
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What happened to two members of the Privy Chamber who held estates in Devon and Cornwall?
Sir Edward Neville and Sir Nicholas Carew were tried and executed.
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What had Carew and Neville done?
They had supported Aragon but when fellow members of faction rebelled in 1536 had remained loyal to King.
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Despite the lack of action by Carew and Neville who likely ordered their execution?
The King due to their association and family links with Reginald Pole whose brother Lord Montague was also tried and executed.
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What was the threat from men such as Exeter?
They had a territorial base from which a challenge could be mounted
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Who were the Poles?
Yorkists with a claim to the throne
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Who was Reginald Pole?
A Catholic who had fled to Rome and organised a propaganda campaign against Henry and all his works.
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What happened in 1547 to Norfolk?
Had been sent to the Tower in December 1546 and only escaped with his life as Henry died before signing the death warrant while hiss son was tried and executed in 1547.
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What did the future hold for the Duke of Norfolk after Henry's death?
He had been stripped of land and titles and remained in prison until released and restored by Mary in 1553.
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How had Henry altered the balance of ower?
Placed in favour of crown with noble rivalries and factional actions increasingly operated within boundaries set by king and competed for royal favour.
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What did David Loades say about the majority fo peers in 1547?
"the majority of peers were of the King's own creation, and constituted a service nobility."
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What remained a benefit of retaining a local leader?
They had an oversight and capacity to bring different offices and sections together. In north and Welsh marches used Regional Councils for this reason, elsewhere no formal arrangements so use of powerful local figurehead.
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In which areas was the need for a local leader most apparent?
Local defence and law and order in times of emergency
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In 1539 when fears of French invasion were rife what did Henry order and why?
Establishment of Council for the West as counties of Devon and Cornwall particularly vulnerable to French or Spanish attack and Cornwall had reputation for rebellion.
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What did Henry also do in 1539?
Appointed number of Lord Lieutenants in West and elsewhere with responsibility for raising local forces.
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When had the position of Vice-Admiral with jurisdiction over private shipping in the area been established, specifically in the west?
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What happened regarding developments in the West in 1540?
Council and positions of Lord Lieutenant lapsed in 1540 but Vice-Admiral role continued
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Who were most of the men appointed into those short term roles in the West?
Largely geny status rather than gereater nobility.
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Who replaced the Courtenays in the south west and why?
Lord John Russell (later Earl of Bedford) was President of the Council of the West in 1539 and influence began to grow from this time of family
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What was the role of Lord John Russel from 1539 onwards?
In 1545 given special commission of array to manage defence in the four SW counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset and Somerset and after managing suppression of Western Rebellion in 1549 became Lord Lieutenant of all four counties in 1551
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When were similar arrangements of those with Lord John Russell adopted throughout southern England in?
1549 due to widespread unrest and protest 'camps' culminating in Western Rebellion and Kett's Rebellion. Series appointemnts in 1549 and 1550
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What happened to some of the appointments made in 1549 and 1550?
Some of them lapsed thereafter, but a more systematic approach was gradually adopted.
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From around 1549 what happened regarding Lord Lieutenants?
More systematic approach with system of Lord Lieutenants (usually noble men with regional connections) began to bbecome established across country.
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When did the system of Lord Lieutenants develop fully?
1580s but by 1553 a start had been made in creation of effective national system of civil and military administration
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What progress was made in Henry's reign, in the words of David Loades?
"this was the process that turned the provincial magnate of the fifteenth century into the court-based politicians of the Elizabethan period"
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


When does Elton say that there was a Tudor revolution in government?


From 1532 to 1540 when Cromwell was Henry's chief minister.

Card 3


What is the gist of the tudor revolution in government?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What four parts can Elton's theory of a revolution in government be broken down into?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Tudor Revolution in Government - Central Government


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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