History Transformation Of Surgery GCSE

Transformation of Surgery Edexcel.

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Source Skills Needed:

  • inference
  • portrayal
  • source analysis
  • source evaluation for reliability and utility
  • cross-referencing of sources
  • using sources and ownknowledge to make a judgement
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Major Occurrences 1846-1916

1846 - Morton used ether to anaethetise a patient in the USA.

 - Liston used ether during an amputation in Britain.

1847 - Simpson used chloroform.

1848 - Hannah Greener died while receiving chloroform.

1853 - Queen Victoria received chloroform during childbirth.

 1861 - Pasteur's germ theory published.

1867 - Lister used carbolic acid.

1877 - Lister became Professor of Surgery at King's College Hospital, London, and publicised his ideas about antiseptics.

1878 - Koch developed the steam steriliser.

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Major Occurrences 1846-1916

1901 - Landsteiner identified blood groups.

1905 - Novocaine used as an anaesthetic.

1916 - Rous & Turner developed a way of storing blood.

 - Gilles set up a plastic surgery unit at Aldershot.

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Around the room.

Landsteiner - fire extuinguisher - blood groups.

Simpson - TV - discovered chloroform.

Lister - Desk - carbolic spray.

Gilles - broken bin - plastic surgery.

Roentgen - lights - Xray.

Davy - fumepipe - discovered nitrous oxide.

Pasteur - cooking room door - inspired Lister.

Snow - window - inhaler.

Liston - board - high speed surgeon.

Wells - Spinny chair - first to use nitrous oxide.

Pare - blind cord - first to use ligatures.

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Individuals (see around the room)

War (Gilles - plastic surgery, cadavers needed for dissection)

Government (funding etc)


Technology (microscope, carbolic spray, new materials (plastic, rubber))

Communication (publication of ideas)

Scientific Knowledge (germ theory, etc)

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Thankyou! The timeline of surgical events was very useful!


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