GCSE History Medicine Through Time

  • Created by: Soukdog
  • Created on: 16-04-19 15:46
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  • History Medicine Through Time
    • Key Dates
      • 1348 - Black Death kills 40% of the population
        • 1543 - Vesalius publishes his book on Anatomy, proving Galen wrong
          • 1628 - Harvey publishes his book, proving that the heart is a pump
            • 1665 - Great Plague kills 100,000 in London
              • 1796 - Jenner develops the smallpox vaccination
                • 1842 - Chadwick publishes his report on the living conditions of the poor
                  • 1861 - Pasteur publishes his germ theory
                    • 1875 - Koch proves germ theory by identifying the anthrax bacterium
                      • 1911 - National Insurance
                        • 1928 - Fleming discovers Penicillin
                          • 1948 - NHS begins
                            • 1953 - Structure of DNA discovered by Crick and Watson
    • Key Individuals
      • Andreas Vesalius - Anatomy expert. Proved Galen wrong, published book in 1543
        • William Harvey - Proved the heart is a pump (Galen wrong again) Book 1628
          • Edward Jenner - Smallpox vaccination using Cowpox. 1796
            • Edwin Chadwick - Report on Living Conditions of the poor, 1842
              • John Snow - Linked cholera to dirty water (Broad St pump) 1854
                • Louis Pasteur - Germ Theory 1861, proved germs cause disease (Not spontaneous generation)
                  • Joseph Lister - Used carbolic acid in surgery to prevent infection (antiseptics) 1875
                    • Robert Koch - Proved Germ Theory by identifying the anthrax bacterium, 1875
                      • Alexander Fleming - Discovered penicillin in 1929 and published a paper on it
                        • Aneurin Bevan - Health Minister. Overcame opposition to launch NHS 1948
    • Public Health - Detailed Dates
      • 1348 - Black Death
        • 1665 - Great Plague
          • 1796 - Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine
            • 1842 - Chadwick's Report
              • 1848 - 1st Public Health Act
                • 1854 - Snow links dirty water to Cholera
                  • 1858 - Big Stink
                    • 1861 - Pasteur's Germ Theory
                      • 1867 - Working Class get vote
                        • 1871 - Compulsory Smallpox Vaccination
                          • 1875 - 2nd Public Health Act
                            • 1906 - 1914 - Liberal Reforms
                              • 1911 - National Insurance
                                • 1920 - Home for Heroes
                                  • 1942 - Beveridge's Report
                                    • 1948 - NHS begins
                                      • 1960 - Hospital Building
                                        • 1970 - Single Issue Health Campaigns
                                          • 2007 - Smoking bans
    • Key Words
      • Spontaneous Generation - Belief that decay causes germs, not the other way round
        • Flagellants - Religious people who beat themselves to please God and so prevent them catching the Black Death
          • Inoculation - Give someone a small dose of a disease to try protect them from it
            • Anthrax - A disease which Robert Koch identified in 1875
              • Reformation - The change in the Christian Church from Catholicism to Protestantism
                • Apothecary - A medieval Chemist who made Herbal remedies for Physicians or patients
                  • Forceps - Instruments used in childbirth which led to women being excluded from midwifery
                    • Barber Surgeon - Performed minor surgery and gave advice in the Middle Ages
                      • Wise Women - Woman in a village with knowledge of herbs and basic medicine
                        • Public Health - Actions by government to keep the people healthy and prevent disease
                        • Renaissance - 1500 - 1750 Saw Church lose power, a renewed interest in the Ancient World and the Scientific Revolution
    • Hospitals, Doctors and Training
      • Medieval Hospital - Provided accommodation and prayers, not treatment
        • 1530s - Reformation closes, Hospitals run by Monasteries
          • Early 1700s - New Hospitals opened towards the end of the Renaissance
            • 1768 William Hunter - Opened Anatomy Theatre to train Doctors
              • 1815 Apothecaries Act - Introduced formal exams (For the equivalent of Family Doctors)
                • 1858 General Medical Act - Set up a system of regulation for Doctors
                  • 1860s Florence Nightingale - Opened School for Nursing and campaigned improvements for Hospitals
                    • 1860s and 1870s - Germ Theory and Antiseptic surgery led to improveness in Hospital cleanliness
                      • Late 1860s - Parliament told Poor Law Unions to build infirmaries and fever hospitals
                        • 1902 Midwives Act - Midwives now had to be trained and registered
    • Explanation of Disease
      • Middle Ages - Believed disease is sent by God due to an imbalance in the humours
        • 1700s - Miasma Theory takes over from the Four Humours as the most common explanation of disease
          • 1800s - The invention of better microscopes leads to the theory of Spontaneous Generation
            • 1861 - Pasteur publishes Germ Theory, a disease caused by germs
              • 1875 - Koch proves Germ Theory by identifying the Anthrax bacterium
                • 1953 - Structure of DNA discovered

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