History - The racial state, 1933-39

Section C

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Page 21

  • 505,000 Jews in Germany in 1933 - most lived in urban areas. 
  • 1933 they became 'Untermenschen' = the sub humans. 
  • 1934, forbidden from taking legal exams. 
  • Buses,trains atec. had to sit on seats labelled for them. 
  • April 1933, The German boxing assocation banned all jewish boxers. 
  • 22nd september, jews excluded from The reich chamber of commerce. 
  • march 1934, jewish actors were banned from performing on stage or screen. 
  • 22nd, jews could no longer take law examinations. 
  • The Nuremburg Laws put Jews to the second class status - both signed by Hitler. 
  • 1st law - citizenship of the Reich only belong to a German. 2nd law - jews defined as being those of not German blood.  
  • After, Nuremburg laws, violence against Jews began in earnest. 
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  • between 1933 - 1939, 250,000 Jews left Germany. 
  • 1936//7 - the professional activities were prohibited e.g. teachers/nurses/dentists. 
  • 1936 - Berlin olympic games, open violence to Jews was suspended. 
  • 1937, Heydrich said that jewish women who had sex with germans were to be sent to concentration camps. 
  • 1938 - male jews were ordered to add the name 'Israel' and female jews were ordered to add 'sara' to their non-jewish names.
  • April 1938 - all Jews to register all their wealth exceeding a value of 5,000 marks. 
  • November - jews had to pay a collective fine of 1.25 thousand million marks in pay for the voilence suring Kristallnacht. 
  • What Germans heard in newspapers and heard on their radios was contolled by the government - the burning books written by Jews etc.   
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  • 'Propaganda tries to force a doctrine on the whole people...Propaganda works on the general public form teh stadnpoint of an idea and meaks them ripe for the victorey' - Hitler Mein Kampf  
  • Legislation or executive measures were taken against the jews e.g. proganda campaigns created to make an atmosphere of voilence epecially in 1935 and 1938. 
  • Real and percieved discrimination against ethnic Germans in east eupoean nations were the subject of nazi propaganda. 
  • Newspapers presented Germany as the 'defender' of the western culture. 
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  • Films played an important part in discriminating the jews - it portrayed the jews as 'subhuman' creatures liviung off Germany's society. 
  • The Eternal Jew - was an attempt to prepare people for the final soultion. 
  • Some films glorified Hitler and Germany instead by promoting the national pride in the Nazi regmie sucesses. 
  • 1.100 films were produced by 1944, which were watched by 1,000 million Germans per year. 
  •  Press, end of 1933 - there were 4,700 publications a day of varyig sizes. 
  • The Nazi owned 'Volische Beobachter' had circulation of 127,000 but after it got took over, circulation had reached 1,192,500. 
  • Der Sturmer - 1934 - 65,000 copies 1937 - 500,000.  
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  • Radio - 1933 4.5 out of 20 million households. 1942, 16 million out of 23 million houses had radios. 
  • Music - jewish composers and themes were removed and banned e.g. Mendelssohn. 
  • Theatre - the attendances at the 197 theatres doubled in the years to 1942. 
  • Nazis developed the Thingspiel - open air events which combined military tattoos and circus performances including the hitler youth and sa battalions. 
  • In 1936, festivel of youth had a cast of 10,000 and attracted large audiences.
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