explosion on south manchurian railway-where japan had a presence.
japan blamed china said they were trying to sabotage them.
japan took oppertunity to invade manchuria.
china appealed to the league.
instructed japan to withdraw troops from manchuria, but japan took firmer control.
set up report, which was finished one year after crisis happened, every country accepted report exept japan, they left the league in 1933.
the league couldnt use economic sanctions as their main trading partner was usa which wasnt part of the league.
britain was concerned further punishments against japan may harm british trade in asia.
the league's response showed that they couldnt face up to aggresive nations and they took a long time to react to crisis'. and they did stuff for their own benefit not the benefit of other country's.
Mussolini wanted to avenge 1896 defeat so decided to invade.
Italian weapons were to powerful for absyinians spears..
haile selaise appealed to the league, the leage did:
not ban oil exports; feared usa wouldnt co-operate.
didnt ban coal exports; feared british mining trade would be harmed.
suez canal wasnt shut, which was mussolini's main entry route to absyinia.
hoare-laval pact: french priminster and british foreign secretary composed plan to give italy all the rich areas: for raw materials etc. and absyinia all the mountanious areas, the plan was leaked and both forced to resign.
the leagues response showed that the league again could not deal with agressors and it put its own selfish needs before any other countrys in need!
anschluss was the joining of germany and austria as part of hitlers foreign policy aim of joining all german speaking countries together.
austrian nazis were planning on starting a rebellion in austria, schusnigg called hitler in asking for help, hitler told schunsigg to put some austrian nazis in goverment. schusnigg tried to resist the nazi takeover by holding a plebiscite to see whether austrians wanted to join with germany.
hitler was scared the answer would be no, so he had troops at the border threatening war!
at the end of the plebiscite the answer was yes, 99.7% of austrians voted yes to joining with germany.
The saar 1935
Treaty of versailles put the saar-an industrial area of germany- under control of the leage for 15 years, then there would be a plebiscite held to decide what would happen to it.
the plebiscite date approached and the nazis had a big campaign to persuade saarlanders to vote for reunification, the opposition (communists and sociolists which tried to organise an opposition) were threatened and beaten.
The result of the plebiscite was 90% said yes to reuniting with Germany.
This was the first undoing of the Treaty of Versailles, it encoraged Hitler to carry on undoing it.
The Korean war
Korea was dividing into 2 at the 38th parallel, soviet forces occupied north korea and americans occupied south korea.
North korea, communist state was set up under kim IL sung.
South korea, anti-communist state run by syngman rhee.
North Korea's Peoples Army invaded South korea in 1950. South Korea asked the united nations for help. United nations security declared North korea to be the agressor.
Usa and 16 nations headed to Korea-32 countries participated in the war.
General Mcarther organised naval landing which shocked communists forcing them to retreat. UN troops advanced into North Korea towards China.
China intervenes- China feared for its security. warned UN troops not to head to Yalu river. Macarther ignored warning, wished to invade china and prepared to use Nuclear weapons. november- china sent in 200,000 volunteers to help north korea,UN forces were pushed back beyond 38th parallel.
In mid-1951, with the land battle in stalemate, both sides agreed to go to the conference table and armistice talks began.
Impact of Korean war.
Intesified Cold War hostilities.
Founding of Seato- south Asian version of nato, aim was to contain communism in the far east.
South didnt fall to communism. America saw the war as a success as communism had been contained.
Successful for the UN as it showed it wasnt afraid to stand up to Agressors.
Wilhem wanted to expand German power in Africa.
in 1905 he visited Morocco and promised to support its attempt to remain independent. This upset the French who were interested in Morocco as a Colony.
1906- Algeciras conference, Britain and Russia stood by France and agreed Germany should have no say in Moroccon affairs.
Morocco again-Agadir crisis.
1911-France helped morocco put down rebellion, gave france oppertunity to take over morocco.
in return for morroco france was willing to compensate countries concerned by it-Germany&spain.
Germany sent gunboat to agadir hoping it would force the french into giving them a share of morocco.
Austria-Hungary and Turkey had empires in the Balkans. Both empires were weak and the Slav people waned to exploit the weakness and create new, independent slav nations.
Austro Hungarian empire was worried bout the spread of slav nationalism as there were 15 different nationalities in the Austro-Hungarian empire, if nationalism spread in their empire.. the empire would collapse.
Austro-Hungarian politicians and generals were eager to eliminate Serban nationilism in the Balkans.
Bosnia was a slav state in the balkans, part of the turkish empire. Administred by Austria-Hungary since 1878. 1908 revolution in Turkey, Autria-Hungary decided to annex Bosnia.
Annexation of Bosnia opposed by serbia- they had ambitions to expand slavs of bosnia. Serbia was to small to act against Austria-Hungary.. So they went to Russia for support. Russia sympathised but Germany made it clear to Russia that if they declared war on Austria-hungary, Germany would declare war on Russia. Russia backed off.
Bosnian Crisis is important as..
Reassured Austria-Hungary that it can rely on German support.
Russia built up armies and was determined not to back down next time.
Serbia accepted loss of Bosnia, but wanted revenge on Austria-Hungary.
Alliance system 1900-14
Division of Europe into two main rival alliances was seen as a major cause of WW1.
1882, Germany formed alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy, called the triple alliance.
1904 Britain signed entente cordiale with france and then in 1907 Britain reached agreement with Russia, entente cordiale became triple entente- Britain,France and Russia.
The alliance system increased atmospher in Europe as..
the treaties signed were secret and no way of knowing if the treaties signed were for defense or to make an agressive move.
Relations between rival powers worsened. Powers looked for support from their allies, so local disputes were turned into wider hostility.
The great powers were also involved in arms and naval races, they were becoming more agressive and militarily stronger.
Chamberlian believed that in order to keep world peace, prevent war and solve disputes was to negotiate with hitler directly and agree to some of his demands, and if they were met then hitler would be satisified.
Hitler overturns appeasement
Czechslovakia had a strong army,strong defense agreements with USSR, skoda arments factories and large deposits of coal in the Sudetenland. The sudetenland also had german speaking people which gave Hitler his reason to confront Czechslovakia. He demanded that the czechslovakian goverment gave more concessions to the sudeten germans- improved their rights. Hitler wanted sudetenland to be part of germany. April 1938 German troops massed the Czech border. President of czechslovakia mobilised troops to resist hitler. 12th september 1938 sudeten nazis were encoraged by hitler to riot but they were crushed by czech goverment. hitler threatened war.
Chamberlain tried to keep peace, 15th sept 1938 he met hitler at berchesaden. chamberlain then tried to persude czechs to transfer to germany the main areas were mainly german. 22nd sept 1938 chamberlain met up with hitler again told him of czech agreement.hitler wanted whole of sudetenland&threatened war.
Munich agreement 1938.
Hitler,Mussolini,Daladier & Chamberlain no czechslovakia. it was agreed that hitler could have whole of sudetenland. 1 day after munich agreement hitler and chamberlian had seperate treaty-promised not to go to war and consult eachother in case of problems.
Occupation of Czechslovakia 1939.
Munich agreement weakened czechslovakia as it lost defense system,industrial areas and lost terriotory to poland. action of sudetenland infulenced other nationalities to return to their origin. 1939-slovaks of czechslovakia demanded more rights. Emil Hacha had no choice but to let hitler in. 15th march 1939 nazis marched into prague. czechslovakia failed to exit as independent state.
this ended appeasement, hitler shown himself to be agressor and would continue to take land until stopped. after occupation of czechslovakia britain introduced consciption.
Yalta and Potsdam conference and the iron curtain.
Yalta Feburary 1945, before end of the war. Stalin,Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to agree on peace settlements, these were:
Germany to be divided into 4 zones, Britain,USA,France&USSR to occupy each zone. Berlin divided into 4 zones. Eastern Europe countries allowed to choose goverment in free elections. Germany made to pay reparations.
Potsdam July 1945
Germany had been defeated, war was over. Relations between East and West had cooled a lot. Roosevelt died, Truman was his replacement, Churchill lost election, Clement Atlee was representive for Britain. he was suspicious of Stalin as in Poland Stalin arrested non-communists and refused to let democratic elections take place. Allies sorted details at what had been agreed at Yalta, set boundries for the 4 zones in Germany and discussed how they would be governed USSR suffered most damage from the war,took the repartions in form of equipment and materials.
The Iron Curtain
The Iron curtain between democratic West and Soviet East Stalin saw this as an act of war.
USA also had the atomic bomb= military superiority over USSR.
Franz Ferdinand was visiting Austria-Hungary, Terrorist group the black hand gang made 2 attempts to kill him, the first attempt failed and hit the car behind Ferdinands. The second killed him and his wife instantly. The shots were fired as a member saw the archduke and his wife because the driver had made a wrong turning.
Some Austro-Hungarian Politicians saw the assasin as an excuse to attack serbia, but they had no proof Serbia had anything to do with it, but they composed an ultimatium where serbia had to agree to 10 conditions of face war. Serbia agreed to 9, but stressed it wanted no war. Austria-Hungary declared war on serbia 28th July 1914.
Russia were determined not to back down this time and support Serbia, they also had support from France. Germany agreed to help Austria-Hungary, whatever the costs by end of July Germany decided to go to war.
Schlieffen plan: Count Alfred Von Schlieffen believed to cope with war was to attack France first through Belgium and Holland and then get to Russia within 6 weeks as they wouldnt be mobilised till then, the plan was changed by Moltke who said to only go through Belgium. Russia mobilised quickly however.
1st August 1914, Germany declared war on Russia 3rd august, on france.
Schlieffen plan was huge factor of WW1 as when Germany mobilised, fighting started.
Britain planned to stay neutral but they had a treaty with Belgium- if belgium's neutrality was violated. 4th august, germans invaded belgium. Belgium and north France were short distance from Britain so could be used to launch attack on Britain, Britian entered the war.
Truman Doctrine,Marshall plan&aid, comecon and com
Truman Doctrine- 1947 communists threatened to take control over Greece and Turkey and Britain said they could no longer offer greek goverement support against communist rebels. March 1947 Truman declared USA would help any nation threatened by communism policy was known as the Truman Doctrine.
Marshall plan-USA general marshall was convinced that some European countries were so poor they would fall to communism, the aim of the marshall plan was to help Europe recover economically, as soon as possible. Marshall and Truman were given $17 billion to start Marshall aid.
Marshall aid- put marshall plan into action, and by 1952 most countries had lost communist influence. Stalin forbade comecon countries to take marshall aid.
Cominform- designed to spread communism and protect communist states from US agression.
Comecon- council for mutual economic assitance. soviet version of Marshall aid, but failed as the soviets had no money to give.
Hiroshima and Nagusaki
6th august 1945, american pilot dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima. 78,000 people were killed. 3 days later they dropped a bomb on Nagusaki, 74,000 people were killed and Japan surrended WW2 was over.
Dropping of atomic bomb worsened relations as truman didnt tell stalin about the bomb. and the growth of nuclear pacifism (CND, campaign for nucluear disarment.)
in 1949 USSR developed own atom bomb, armed conflict between the powers would be MAD mutual assisted destruction.
Berlin Blockade:Western zones of germany started building up as a weak germany would fall to communism. the west introduced new currency in west germany the deutchmark withouth consulting stalin. Stalin closed every access area to get from the West to West Berlin. West berlin started to starve as they had no way of getting
Airlift: Western powers flew food to west berlin to help the people survive. in order to survive they needed 400 tonnes of food delivered a day.
as a result of the blockade and airlift.. the ill feeling between usa&germany ended. 79 usa/british pilots died but this showed the determination the west had to resist communism. it also ended any hope for a united Germany.. 3 western states became the federal republic of Germany. it had freely elected goverment. USSR's zone into German democratic republic with a communist goverment.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty was signed by George Clemenceau, David Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson and 2 german representives but they had no say in the agreements and had to sign it!
Territorial changes to germany: Alsace Lorraine returned to France,West Prussia, Posen and some of upper Silesia were given to Poland,League of nations (set up as part of woodrows 14 points.) would control the Saar for 15 years, Germany were forbidden to unite with Austria,Germany lost 10% of its land, overseas colonies, 16% of its Coalfields, half its Iron&steel industry and 12.5% of its population.
Military restrictions: Army limited to 100,000 soldiers, conscription was banned- all soldiers had to be volunteers. not allowed tanks,submarines or military aircraft, could only have 6 battleships, Rhineland was demiliterized.
War guilt clause: Germany accepts responsibility of germany and its allies for causing loss and damage to allied. Clause provided justification for Germanys punishment, it was also made to pay for the war 1921 repartions were £6.6 million.
League of nations: set up as part of the treaty, set up to maintain international peace, ensure details of versailles peace settlement were carried out.
Strengths of the treaty: signed by 45 countries, worldwide agreement to end WW1, most of the boundries it enforced still exist today.
Weaknesses: very unpopular, people believed reparations were to high and they would damage world trade and lloyd george thought it would cause war not prevent it.
Germans viewed the treatty: believed allies were trying to destroy their country terriotorial changes and woodrows 14 points were to unfair, left humiliated by the gulilt clause, it spread anger and resentment amongst germans.
some of the 14 points: no secret treaties,disarment, free access to seas, colonies to have own say,league of nations to be set up.