History: International Relations 1919-1939 (The Treaties & Pacts)

Cards to help revise all the treaties and pacts during this period. Includes dates and terms of the agreements.

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 TREATY OF FRANKFURT

 

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DATE: 10th May 1871

TERMS: Germany gained Alsace- Lorraine. A result of Franco-Prussian War in 1870.

EFFECTS: This now meant that 10% of France was occupied by Germany and was one of the reasons why Clemenceau wanted Germany punished so harshly in the Treaty of Versailles. Germany later invaded again in 1914.

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TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK

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DATE: 3rd March 1918 (drawn up in 1917)

TERMS: Germany took away a quarter of Russia's Empire, a quarter of its industry and nine-tenths of its coal mines. It was drawn up because the Russians had pulled out of WW1 due to the Russian Revolution (1917).

EFFECTS: The terms were extremely harsh on Russia, however the treaty was annulled 8 months later. This bad treatment of the Russians led people to think that the Treaty of Versailles was giving the Germans a taste of their own medicine.

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TREATY OF VERSAILLES

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DATE: 28th June 1919

TERMS:

G uilt - Germany had to accept all blame for starting WW1

A rmed forces - 100,000 army soldiers, no conscription, 15,000 sailors, 6 battleships, demilitarise the Rhineland for 15 years

R eparations - £6600 million agreed upon in 1921, figure was changed by the Young Plan.

G erman land - Lost 15% of land and 6,000,000 people, Alsace-Lorraine to France, lost Saarland to LoN

L eague of Nations - created by Wilson's 14 points, international "police force"

E mpire- all overseas colonies became mandates, GB pleased about this

EFFECTS: There were many repercussions, the largest perhaps the outbreak of WW2, however there is too much detail to fit on this card.

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TREATY OF St-GERMAIN

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DATE: 1919

TERMS: Separated Austria and Hugary into 2 countries, forbade Anschluss, Austria had to disarm and land was taken away.

EFFECTS: Austria was no longer a leading power in Europe and the treaty sorted out the Austrain Empire which had collapsed in 1918, rather than punishing them. Austria had severe economic problems because mot of it's industrial land had gone to Czechoslovakia and Italy felt they should have received more land than they did.

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TREATY OF NEUILLY

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DATE: 1919

TERMS: Bulgaria lost territory to Greece, Romania, and Yugoslavia and it's access to the sea as well as having to disarm.

EFFECTS: They weren't treated as harshly because they had played a comparatively small part in the war, however by 1920 most Bulgarians were goverened by foreign powers.

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TREATY OF TRIANON

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DATE: 1920

TERMS: Mostly dealt with transferring territories from Hungary to other countries and like all the losing countries Hungary had to disarm.

EFFECTS: Industry suffered badly because it relied on producing raw materials and this land had been given to some other country.

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TREATY OF SEVRES

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DATE: 1920

TERMS: Turkey lost a lot of its empire, no longer had control of the straits to the Black Sea, many of Turkey's former lands were made independent or became mandates.

EFFECTS: It completely demolished the Turkish Empire which is what the Allies wanted becase it was in a strong position previously. The Treaty outrages many Turks and eventually there was a protest lead by Mustafa Kemal who drove the Greeks out of Smyrna, which produced the Treaty of Lausanne.

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 LOCARNO TREATIES

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DATE: 1925

TERMS: Fixed the borders of Belgium, France and Germany; the Rhineland would remain demilitarised; France agreed to aid Poland and Czechoslovakia if the were attacked by Germany and Germany agreed if there were disputes with its neighbours they wouldn't use force to resolve them.

EFFECTS: Germany was being treated as an equal again and made the public feel as if there was a period of 'peace' and international co-operation, although the treaties didn't do much. It worried some people that the Eastern frontiers hadn't been set like the Western ones and so worried the Polish and Czechs.

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KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT

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DATE: 1928

TERMS: Every country that signed the pact condemned war as an option to solve any international disputes and that they wouldn't go to war within 5 years unless in self-defence.

EFFECTS: 65 nations (as well as France and USA) signed the pact and was a popular move with the generaly public, however nothing was drawn up about what would happen if one of the countries broke the terms of the pact, so it heavily relied on trust between countries. Couldn't prevent the Manchurian Crisis in 1931.

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THE PACT OF STEEL

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DATE: 1939

TERMS: Germany and Italy formerly agreed to act 'side by side' in any future events and it formalised the Rome-Berlin Axis in 1936 which was initially the beginning of this coalition.

EFFECTS: Italy and Germany strengthened their armed forces and economies which made other countries, especially nieghbouring ones, very nervous.

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NAZI-SOVIET

NON-AGGRESSION PACT

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DATE: August 1939

TERMS: Soviets and Germans agreed not to fight each other in the event of a war; they would divide up Polish territory if the ever gained it; Hitler allowed Stalin to occupy the Baltic states and Bessarabia in Romania.

EFFECTS: Shocked Britain and France who had hoped to sign an agreement with Stalin so Germany would feel threatened on the Eastern frontier.Stalin had been suspicious of Britain and France's approaches because they sent low-ranking diplomats and didn't offer as good terms as Hitler. It also gave Hitler the opportunity to invade Poland despite threats from GB and Fr.

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