History 1536-1569 OCR Tudors AS

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Religious Reforms

  • 1536 - Act for the Dissolution of the Monasteries
  • 1536 - 10 Articles published by Cranmer, who also received the first English Bible
  • 1537 - The 'Institution of a Christian Man' is published by Cranmer
  • 1539 - Statute of 6 Articles - Henry is keen to maintain Catholic practices and the Statute ostensibly defends them
  • 1539 - The Great Bible is published
  • 1539 - Act for the Dissolutiuon of the Monasteries - although this is nearly finished, the restated Henry's power and ensured that all monies raised went directly to him
  • 1543 - The King's Book is published - it is a refinement of the Institution of a Christian Man but also defends Catholic practices, especially transubstantiation
  • 1543 - Act for the Advancement of True Religion - the English Bible was only available for the upper-classes and the nobility
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Religious Reforms (2)

  • 1544 - The English Litany is introduced in churches - it was intended to replace the pre-existing Latin Litany, however it was not compulsory for priests to use it
  • 1545 - Chantries Act - this allows for the dissolution of the chantries but wasn't enforced
  • 1549 - First Book of Common Prayer/ Act of Uniformity - this was the start of Edward's Protestant reformation
  • 1552 - The 42 Articles - these were again written by Cranmer as guidelines for the church
  • 1552 - an amended Book of Common Prayer was published
  • 1553 - The Statute of Repeal - Mary restored the church to the way it had been in 1547
  • 1554 - Second Statute of repeal - this restored papal authority and revoked all reforms from 1529-1547 (married clergy were to leave their families, or face a fine and lose their jobs. The majority complied, though a few fled). Anyone who had purchased what had previously been church land after 1536 was protected and allowed to keep it.
  • 1555 - The old heresy laws were restored
  • 1559 - Act of Supremacy - Elizabeth became Governor of the church in England
  • 1559 - Act of Uniformity - it was compulsory to own a Book of Common Prayer and attend mass
  • 1563 - The 39 Articles are published - they established the position of the church in England
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Rebellions - Pilgrimage of Grace 1536

Causes:

  • They wanted Mary to be made the legitimate heir to the throne
  • They wanted papal authority to restored in England

Events:

  • Aske formed an army to defend the monasteries
  • 30,000 men marched to York
  • The Duke of Norfolk talked with the rebels and they disbanded, under the illusion that King Henry would listen to their requests

Consequences:

  • 200 men were executed a few months later
  • This included the abbots of 4 of the largest monasteries
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Rebellions - Western 1548

Causes:

  • They wanted to abolish the new English Bible, in favour of one in Latin or Cornish
  • They were pro-Catholicism and did not like the Protestant reforms taking place

Events:

  • They killed the herald who was sent as a government representative
  • There was a fight between them and those trying to impose the new reforms on them

Consequences:

  • Many of the rebels were killed, although Cranmer wrote a letter to pardon those that weren't, as he described them as 'ignorant men' who did not understand what they were asking for
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Rebellions - Kett 1549

Causes:

  • It started as a protest against enclosure
  • The causes were largely socio-economic; the rebels were angry at the ruling classes who had money when the lower classes did not (largely caused by inflation, but blamed on the greed of the ruling classes)

Events:

  • Kett and his rebels went and camped on Mousehold Heath in Norfolk
  • They presented their demands to the government and remained on the Heath, despite attempts from government forces to move them

Consequences:

  • Kett and up to 3,000 rebels were killed
  • The commissions into enclosure were allowed to lapse
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Rebellions - Wyatt 1554

Causes:

  • They were a Protestant rebellion (although largely politically motivated) and wanted to re-instate Lady Jane Grey as Queen
  • They opposed Mary's potential marriage to Philip II of Spain

Events:

  • They marched to Ludgate and attempted to rally support for Jane Grey
  • However they were met by forces that had assembled for Mary (this was when she made her famous Guildhall speech)

Consequences:

  • Wyatt, Suffolk, Lady Jane Grey and her husband Guilford Dudley were executed for treason
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Rebellions - Northern 1569

Causes:

  • They were Catholics who wanted to crown Mary (Queen of Scots) Queen of England. Ideally, she would then marry the Duke of Norfolk, who would basically rule through her.

Events:

  • Gathered forces under feudal law
  • The rebellion was put down fairly easily

Consequences:

  • 450 rebels killed under martial law
  • The government continued to work in the same centralised way
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