Health, safety and hygiene

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Food poisoning

What is food poisoning?

Food poisoning is an illness caused by eating contaminated food. Food is contaminated if there is something in it which shouldn't be there like bacteria and other microbes. Other causes of food poisoning includes:eating food that contains chemicals and metals, eating poisonous plants (e.g. toadstools and berries).

High Risk Foods

Bacteria really like foods that are moist and high in protein.These include: meat, poultry, eggs, stocks, shellfish, cooked rice, fish, dairy products, gravies, sauces and seafood.

Why does Bacteria make us so ill? How does Bacteria multiply

Some bacteria have to be inside your body to make you ill. Once inside, the bacteria attack your body causing illness. Some cause toxins on the food which makes you ill once it is eaten. Bacteria reproduce rapidly by dividing into two (binary fission). Each bacterium only needs 10-20 minutes to multiply in the ideal conditions: food+water+warmth+time.

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Symptoms of Food poisoning and critical temperatur

Symptoms of Food poisoning can vary depending on the type of food poisoning and can last for days.

  • Abdominal pain-pain in the abdomen.
  • Diarrhoea- 'the runs'
  • Vomitting- being sick
  • Nausea-the feeling of sickness
  • Fever- a raised temperature

Critical temperatures:

  • -18C operating temperature of a freezer
  • -0C freezing temperature of water
  • 5C operating temperature of a fridge
  • 5-63C danger zone
  • 20-25C room temperature
  • 37C body temperature
  • 63C pasteurizing temperature
  • 75C piping hot
  • 100C boiling temperature of water
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Types of food poisoning bacteria

Campylobacter- found in raw poultry and meat

  • illness caused by small numbers of bacteria
  • symptoms include: headache, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea which can last up to 10 days.

Salmonella- found in raw meat, unwashed vegetables, poultry and eggs.

  • Second most common cause of food poisoning
  • survives refrigeration
  • illness caused by large numbers of Bacteria
  • Symptoms: fever, diarrhoea, vomitting, abdominal pain, 48 hours for symptoms to show, can last up to 3 weeks and can be fatal.

E Coli 0157- found in human and animal gut. Also found in raw/udercooked meat and raw vegetables.

  • illness caused by small numbers of bacteria- can survive refrigeration and freezing.
  • Symptoms: Diarrhoea, can be fatal and can take up to five days to spot the symptoms.
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Types of food poisoning bacteria continued

Clostridium Perfringens- from animal faeces.

  • Found in soil, manure,sewage, raw meat and poultry.
  • Produces spores which might not be killed by cooking.
  • Symptoms: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, can be fatal and onset normally after 8-18 hours.

Listeria- found in soil, vegetation, meat, poultry, soft cheese and salad vegetables.

  • Can grow at low temperatures
  • Symptoms range from flu-like symptoms to meningitis,
  • Pregnant women, the very old and young are most at risk.
  • Can take up to weeks to develop.

Bacillus Cereus- found in soil and dust, frequently in rice dishes, pasta, meat or vegetable dishes.

  • illness can be caused by small number of bacteria which forms spores that are HR
  • Symptoms (two types of illness): abdominal pain after 8-18hrs, vomiting after 1-5hrs and usually lasts under 24hrs.
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Staphylococcus Aureas, 1995 food safety regulation

Staphylococcus Aureas- found on the skin, in cuts and boils, and up the nose.

  • Transferred to food from hands,nose or mouth.
  • Large numbers needed to cause illness.
  • survives refrigeration.
  • produces a toxin which may survive cooking.
  • symptoms:severe vomitting, abdominal pains, diarrhoea, onset within 6 hours, lasts about 2 days.

Why do we have food hygiene regulations?

We have food hygiene regulations to prevent outbreaks of food poisoning. Customers need to know that food is safe to eat. Food safety regulations are always changing and establishments should follow the latest guidelines. In 2006, regulations were updated and 'Safer food, better business' was introduced. Food safety regulations are enforced by EHO'S (Environmental health officers) who regularly check all food premises.

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What are the main requirements of the regulations?

The food hygiene regulations cover three main areas:

  • Food premises
  • Personal hygiene of employees
  • Hygienic practices

Food premises must:

  • be well maintained
  • be regularly cleaned
  • have lockers for employees
  • have hand-wash facilities provided
  • have clean cloakroom and toilet facilities
  • first aid available
  • have clean storage areas
  • have temperature-controlled fridges and freezers
  • have equipment that is clean and in good working order
  • be free from pets and pests etc.
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Types of food poisoning bacteria continued

Clostridium Perfringens- from animal faeces.

  • Found in soil, manure,sewage, raw meat and poultry.
  • Produces spores which might not be killed by cooking.
  • Symptoms: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, can be fatal and onset normally after 8-18 hours.

Listeria- found in soil, vegetation, meat, poultry, soft cheese and salad vegetables.

  • Can grow at low temperatures
  • Symptoms range from flu-like symptoms to meningitis,
  • Pregnant women, the very old and young are most at risk.
  • Can take up to weeks to develop.

Bacillus Cereus- found in soil and dust, frequently in rice dishes, pasta, meat or vegetable dishes.

  • illness can be caused by small number of bacteria which forms spores that are HR
  • Symptoms (two types of illness): abdominal pain after 8-18hrs, vomiting after 1-5hrs and usually lasts under 24hrs.
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Personal hygiene of food handlers

Food handlers should:

  • have regular training in food safety
  • be dressed in clean 'whites' or other uniform
  • have hair tied back or ideally wear a hat
  • have short clean nails with no varnish or jewellery
  • be in good health (cannot work with upset stomach)
  • have good habits e.g. no coughing or sneezing over food
  • wash their hands after handling raw meat, after blowing nose
  • cuts should be covered with blue plasters
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Hygienic practices

  • Food deliveries should be checked thoroughly (no damage done to packaging, food in date)
  • food should be labelled and stored correctly (in freezers, chillers, fridges and dry stores)
  • food should be 'rotated' (First In First Out)
  • care should be taken with temperature control in the kitchen ( food staying out of the danger zone)
  • food should be prepared as quickly and as close to cooking time as possible.
  • Hot food should be maintained at above 63C.
  • The core temperature of cooked food needs to be at least 75C.
  • Chilled food should be stored below 5C
  • Washing up should be done in hot soapy water if there is no dishwasher available.
  • Waste should be disposed of safely.

Food Handling

High standards of personal, food and kitchen hygiene are needed to keep food safe and prevent food poisoning.

Good personal hygiene means ensuring that germs found in or on the body do not transfer to food. We need to have high standards of personal hygiene and cleanliness.

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Expectations of Food handlers

All Food handlers should:

  • wash hands before handling food
  • wash hands when changing from one food to another
  • wash hands after going to the toilet, blowing nose, smoking or handling waste.
  • have short clean nails
  • cover cuts and sores with blue plasters
  • be in good health
  • tie back long hair
  • be dressed appropriately (chef whites)
  • taste food with a clean teaspoon which is then washed.

All food handlers SHOULDN'T:

  • Wear outdoor coats in the kitchen
  • wear nail varnish, false nails or jewellery
  • work when in bad health
  • smoke, eat or drink around food
  • cough or sneeze over food.
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Food Safety Act 1990

The Food safety act covers food safety from raw ingredients through to finished products. The law concentrates on making sure food is safe to eat and is of quality and composition that customers expect. The law gives EHO'S the powers to:

  • enter any food premises at any time
  • inspect food
  • take samples of food away for analysis
  • confiscate any food deemed unfit
  • issue 'improvement notices' to food businesses
  • close premises down.

The food safety act links with HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) and food hygiene regulations. The act emphasises the need for high levels of personal hygiene amongst staff, good hygiene habits of staff, avoiding cross contamination, safe storage of food, good cleaning schedules and strict temperature controls. Under the act food handlers and manufacturers may be prosecuted if their food is found to be unsafe to eat.

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HACCP and 1995 food safety regulations

It is now a legal requirement for all food businesses to carry out some form of hazard analysis to identify the most critical areas of their business and to make sure they are under control.

Hazards- something that has the potential to cause harm. In the food industry, hazards include biological (salmonella in chicken), chemical (contamination from cleaning materials) and physical (damaged packaging, glass found in food)Physical and chemical damage can often be seen, but food contaminated with bacteria can look, smell and taste perfectly normal.

Critical control points

These are the areas in the food business where control is essential to reduce the risk of food poisoning. If a caterer 'gets it wrong' they could be breaking the law. So it is important to ensure every step from the purchasing of food through its preparation and serving is controlled.

Food safety regulations 1995

These regulations cover three main areas: food premises, personal hygiene of staff, hygienic practices.

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Food labelling regulations 2006, Fair trading. tra

By law the following information should be on a label:

  • 'use by' or 'best before' date
  • list of ingredients in weight order with heaviest first
  • name of manufacturer
  • address of manufacturer
  • name of food and a brief description of the food (if it isn't obvious)
  • weight barcode shows where and when manufactured price
  • special claims about the food (suitable for vegetarians, low in fat)
  • method of storage,making and cooking.

The 'Trades description act' makes it a criminal offence to 'falsely describe' goods or services. Care must be taken when:

  • wording the menu (e.g. frozen goods cannot be called fresh)/describing menu items to customers.
  • letting customers know about extra costs.
  • describing service conditions.
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Health and safety at work act 1974

The law means that employers must ensure the health, safety and welfare of staff.  This means the employer must take responsbility for the health and safety of employers by providing adequate working space, provide safe areas of work, provide supervision, instruction and training, safety and maintenance of machinery and tools, good ventilation,  light and temperature control, easy evacuation and exit routes, safety poicy document and a risk assessment.

It also states that staff (employees) must:

1.Take care of their own health, safety and welfare and other persons that they work with. 2.Co-operate with the employer to comply with all health & safety matters. 3.Not interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety and welfare.

The health and safety Executive (HSE) exists to protect people's health and safety by ensuring that risks are properly controlled. They provide many free information guides about health and safety. They also enforce the regulations associated with health and safety and can visit and inspect premises whenever they choose.

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HSE five point plan

Health and safety law states that organisations must:

  • provide a written health and safety policy( if they have more than five employees)
  • assess risks to employees, customers, partners and any other people who could be affected y their activities.
  • arrange for effective planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review of preventive and protective measures.
  • ensure they have access to competent health and safety advice
  • consult employees about their risks at work and current preventive and protective measures.

Failure to meet these requirements can have serious consequences. Sanctions and punishments can include fines and imprisonment.

 

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Safety signs

Safety Signs

WARNING SIGNS- these are triangular. They have a black symbol on a yellow background e.g. caution/hazard.

MANDATORY SIGNS- these are circular. They have a white symbol on a blue background. They show things that must be done.

PROHIBITION SIGNS-These are circular. They have a black symbol on a white background. The circle is outlined in red and there is a thick diagonal line across it denoting things that must not be done.

EMERGENCY SIGNS- These are square or rectangular. They havea  white symbol on a green background e.g. emergency exit sign.

FIRE FIGHTING SIGNS- These are square or rectangular. They have a white symbol on a red background e.g. fire reel.

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the 4 c's

—Cleanliness – Keep yourself and your surfaces clean to stop bacteria spreading. —Cooking – Cook food properly (especially meat) making sure it is piping hot in the centre. —Chilling – It is very important to keep foods at the right temperature. —Cross-contamination – Keep raw and cooked food apart and use separate utensils for each. 

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First Aid

Cuts

  • wash, dry, apply a blue waterproof plaster.
  • If bleeding doesn't stop, apply pressure.

Burns and scalds- a burn is caused by dry heat and scalds are caused by moist heat

  • run under cold water for at least 10 minutes or until stinging sensation stops.
  • If larger than a 10p coin seek medical advice
  • DON'T APPLY CREAMS OR POP BLISTERS
  • If the burns are FAT seek medical help

Falls

  • if they are serious dont't move the patient and seek medical help.
  • If they are non-serious move the patient into the recovery position then slowly into standing position. If they faint put their head in between the knees and check for other injuries.

3c's: cold, clean, covered

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Accident Preventation

Make sure the floors are grease free, any spillages mopped up immediately and put up wet floor signs.

When using light equipment e.g. knives make sure you are using the right sized knife for what you are cutting, keep handles clean and grease free, keep knives sharp, don't leave knives on edges of tables or chopping boards, don't put knives in the bottom of washing-up bowls or point up in a dishwasher and don't attempt to catch a falling knife.

When using electical equipment make sure the machinery is in good order, the wires aren't frayed or worn, don't handle electrical equipment with wet hands, check safety notices and assemble equipment correctly and use safe guards.

When using saucepans indicare hot handles by sprinkling flour on them, take care when moving or lifting heavy pans, use oven gloves, turn pan handles towards the back of the cooker and don't use wet cloths for hot pans.

When using deep fat fryers don't fill above the fat level indicated, don't put wet food into the fryer, lower food in carefully to avoid hot oil rising and change the fat regularly.

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Accident prevention continued

With food staff must be aware that fish bones and meat bones can cause cuts, fozen foods can cause burns, take care when opening and disposing of cans and jars, store raw and cooked foods separately.

When storing equipment make sure you sotre all equipment safely e.g. knives in a block, unplug electrical equipment when not in use and replce safety guards on electrical equipment.

To prevent fires: Make sure you don't have flames larger than the pan, don't leave cloths or oven gloves over cookers, time the cooking of the food accurately, take special care when cooking in fat as it can spit and set alight, have fire blankets and fire extinguishers to hand and have clear fire precedures.

Clothing: wear suitable clothing in the kitchen, wear non slip shoes or clogs, don't wear jewellery than can become trapped in machinery and tie long hair back or cover hair with a hat.

Behaviour: Don't run in the kitchen, pay attention when given instructions, concentrate on the job 'in hand' and make sure workers are supervised at all times.

Cleaning: Try to 'clean as you go', keep cleaning materials and equipment away from food areas, use the right cleaning materials for the task and store them carefully.

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Fish

There are three types of fish:

  • Oily-salmon, tuna, sardines, mackerel
  • white-cod, haddock, whiting, plaice, sole, coley
  • Shellfish, prawns, shrimps, scampi, crabs, mussels and oysters.

The flesh of fish is made up of muscle and connective tissue which are short and thin therefore fish cooks very quickly and can be used in many dishes. Fish of all types go off quickly so it is important to carry out quality checks. Fish should be stored in the fridge until needed, shellfish is a very high-risk food so should be eaten on the day it is bought. Tinned fish is a very good alternative to fresh fish and provides excellent food value.

What to look for when buying fish?

Fish should smell slightly salty  or like the sea, it should have firm flesh, bright red gills, clear eyes with plenty of scales. Shellfish must have tightly closed shells and a fresh smell.

Methods of cooking fish: shallow fry, bake, grill,poaching, deep-frying, BBQING, steaming and microwaving.

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Fish cont

To make fish more interesting you can add:

  • breadcrumbs
  • batter
  • smoking- keeps the fish fresh for longer
  • sauces
  • seasoning
  • marinades

Oily fish contain the nutrients of protein, phosphorous, iodine, polyunsaturated fats and vitamins A and D. Oily fish also contains Omega 3 which helps to keep your heart healthy.A healthy diet should include at least two portions of fish a week, including one of oily fish.  

White fish are: low in fat, making them one of the healthier, low-fat alternatives to red or processed meat, which tends to be higher in fat, especially saturated fat. A source of omega-3 fatty acids, but at much lower levels than oily fish.

Shellfish are low in fat and a good source of selenium, zinc, iodine and copper.

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Eggs

When you buy eggs you should look for:

  • clean, well shaped eggshells
  • a high proportion of thick egg white to thin egg white when the egg is broken.
  • yolks that are firm, round and an even colour.

Eggs are made up of the Yolk, whites and the shell.

  • Yolk contains- cholesterol and fat
  • White contains: vitamins A,D and B2 and iron,calcium and phosphorous minerals. they are also very high in protein and provide energy.

Eggs are very versatile so have many uses:

  • whisked: swiss roll, meringue, sponge flan or gateau (allows air to be introduced into a mixture) Aeration
  • as a glaze: pastry dishes
  • to set a mixture: Quiches. Coagulation is the thickening or setting of a mixture.
  • to bind- fish cakes
  • to coat-fish cakes, chicken joints, scotch eggs.
  • to emulsify- mayonnaise
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Sustainability and the 3R's

Sustainability is the ability of a process to be continued indefinitely without damaging and/or degrading the environment on which it depends.

Able to be sustained for an indefinite period without damaging the environment, or without depleting a renewableresource.

What are the 3 R’s?

Reduceminimise the amount of material and energy used during the whole of a product’s life cycle.

Recycletake an existing product that has become waste and re-process the material for use in a new product.

Reusetake an existing product that has become waste and use the materials or parts for another purpose without processing it.

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