Health Promotion and Behavioural Change Evidence and Examples

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 31-12-18 14:15

Kobau et al 2011 - Mental health promotion

  • Positive health psychology to create supportive enviornments and develop personal skills
  • Reorientate health services and use media campaigns to target population level
  • Develop resilience and optimism - Penn Resiliency Programme teaches children adaptive reactions and resiliency based on optimistic thinking and prevented anxiety and depression symptoms for 2 years - Good because targeted individual skills in school social context 
  • Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) measures strengths that can then be utilised in other inerventions e.g. interent intervention helped people use their strength to increase happiness - Wide access but personalised 
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Glasgow et al 1999 - Evaluating interventions

  • Interventions are only useful if regularly and appropriately evaluated
  • Incorporate policy, enviornmental and individual components 
  • RE-AIM model: Reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance 
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Stokols 1992 - Social ecological approach

  • Individual behaviour is embedded in environmental conditions and health resources - Local community efforts impact global patterns
  • Provide environmental resources that promote health - Ventiliation systems, safe stairways, fitness oppurtunities
  • Links community wide and epidemiological orientation of public health 
  • Provide health care resources - Screening programmes, public education, geographical accessibility 
  • Train enviornmental planners about legislation and economic stratgeies - Multi-collaborative approach 
  • Protect natural resources and quality of public enviornments - UK 1971 Town and country planning act 
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Weisse et al 1995 - AIDS Exposure intervention

  • All participants were provided with information about AIDS and safe sex
  • Half the participants were asked to buy a condom from a local shop
  • All participants had an increased knowledge about HIV infection however the participants in the exposure condition reported less embarrassment and more willingness to buy condoms 
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Pearson et al 2009 and Bangor - Food Modelling

  • Pearson - Adolescents are more likely to eat breakfast if their parents did
  • Bangor Food and Activity Research Group = Food dudes - Video of characters eating fruit and veg (combined with taste exposure and rewards) - Increase in fruit consumption from 4% to 100% and vegetable consumption from 1% to 83% - Maintained 6 months after exposure and modelling 
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Hendy et al 2005 & NHS 2007 - Reinforcement

  • Hendy et al 2005 Preference and consumption of vegetables increased 2 weeks after reinforcement programme at school (tokens and small prizes) - Returned to baseline at 7 months 
  • North East Essex NHS Trust, 2007 increased smoking cessation among women by rewarding them with food vouchers 
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Hollands et al 2001 - Evaluative learning

  • Aimed to increase negative value attached to unhealthy snacks
  • Participants were shown pictures of snacks and unhealthy body images such as heart surgery and obesity
  • Increase in participants choosing fruits over high calorie snacks 
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Socratic questioning and other CBT practices

  • Downward arrow technique = Talk through belief in a way that highlights irrationality 
  • Socratic questioning shows that beliefs aren't always evidence based
  • Other practices include keeping a diary, cue exposure and distractions 
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Quine et al 2011 - TPB

  • Used the Theory of Planned Behaviour to design an intervention to increase cycle helmet use 
  • One condition targeted salient beliefs and the other just provided information
  • Individuals in the beliefs condition showed more positive beliefs about helmet use and were more likely to use a helmet 5 months after the intervention 
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Luszczynska et al 2007 - Planning & implementation

  • Half a group at weight watchers were asked to make plans about their eating and exercise - Specific days, plans for failures and temptations - Other group followed normal weight watchers programme 
  • Experimental group lost double the amount of weight than the control 
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Hammond et al 2003 - Information giving

  • Cigarette warnings on packets increased intention to stop smoking 
  • Increased attempts to quit smoking among those who had read the warnings and discussed them with friends 
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Knight et al 2006 - MI

  • Systematic review of motivational interviewing 
  • Effective for addressing physical health problems such as diabetes, heart disease and asthma
  • Effective at improving psychological, physiological and lifestyle changes
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Example and Kobetz et al 2005 - Stage-matched

  • Types of actions: 
    • Precontemplation = Provide info, highligh benefits
    • Contemplation = Examine ways to overcome barriers
    • Preparation = Goals and planning
    • Action/maintenance = Reinforcement and self-monitoring
    • Relapse = Advice and reevaluate stage 
  • Kobetz et al 2005 used stages of change to indicate readiness to change mammograms behaviour 
    • Asked 2 questions: Does she know about and does she go for mammograms?
    • No to both  = Precontemplation = knowledge barriers so provided info 
    • Yes to 1st, no to 2nd = Contemplation = Action barriers to overcome
    • Yes to both = Action = Remind of importance
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Hollands et al 2015 - Environmental changes

  • Change at population level by changing portion sizes and thus replacing unhealthy cues with healthy ones 
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ELM & PMT - Mass media

  • Elabortation Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) = Central vs peripheral route processing - Either evaluate and integration arguments with existing beliefs or use attractiveness and credibility 
  • Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1983) = Fear motivates behaviour change when the message provides a way to prevent the feared outcome 
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Conner et al 2011 & Shahab et al 2007 - Affect

  • Conner at al 2011 = Affective rather than cognitive images produced greater increase in exercise
  • Shahab et al 2007 = Smokers shown pictures of their arteries with plaque compared to ones without reported higher intentions and self-efficacy to stop smoking 
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