Social psychology

  • Created by: megs543
  • Created on: 21-02-19 21:57
1 of 375
What is the self?
Includes social roles (e.g. gender) and characterstics (friendly).
2 of 375
What is self-construal?
Self-definition in relation to others. Can be independent or Interdependent view of self, represents self-other overlap.
3 of 375
What is self other overlap?
The distinction between self and others is reduced; see others as being part of your self concept, see self in relation to others or important group memberships, characteristic of interdependent self-construal.
4 of 375
Can occur with independent self-construal,under certain conditions. Measured by thinking about themselves and another person and have to circle which one describes their relationship.
5 of 375
Self other overlap & close relationships
Self-other distinction often reduced for close relationships. Aron et al. 1991 found slower RTs when asked to make "me/not me" decisions on traits that differ between self and spouse and Mashek et al 2003 found this amongst best friends.
6 of 375
S-O Overlap & Face Perception. Ketay, Beck, Riela, Bailey & Aron (2018)
Aim: To examine if self-other overlap in close friendships would extend to face perception- perception of own face as less distinct from close friends face?
7 of 375
Study 1?
24 female UG students (N.America) brought close friend (gender & age matched) photos taken of both. There was then computerized facial identification task: variant of me/not me task.
8 of 375
What did they have to do?
They were shown faces (self/friend/celebrity age & race matched), they had to identify the face so is it you/friend/celebrity. Two sets of trials 1. self vs friend 2. self vs celebrity.
9 of 375
Faster RTs to identify self in self vs celebrity (self-reference effect), preferential encoding/processing of self-related information.Same or slower RTs for self vs friend, no preferential treatment, longer to distinguish between themself and friend
10 of 375
Limitations of study
Small sample, will the effects generalize beyond North America, will the effects generalize to males, morphing technique- results very similar to the first study.
11 of 375
Benefits of S-O overlap?
Interpersonal benefits; increased satisfacation & decreased dissolution of close relationships. Intergroup benefits; self-other overlap with individuals from a racial outgroup associated with more positive intergroup attitudes.
12 of 375
Cultural differences in self-construal- Independent self-construal?
Culture promotes focus on self as autonomous entity (separate from others), inward focus on self,Northwestern Europe, US, Canada,NZ.
13 of 375
Cultural differences in self-construal- Interdependent self-construal?
Culture promotes focus on self as being cnnected to others (importance played on community),outward focus on situation, Asia,Eastern Europe, Africa, Latin America.
14 of 375
Cultural differences- Cohen & Gunz 2002 study?
Student asked to tell stories about when they were the focus of attention, e.g. being embarassed. Canadian (Independent self-construal), Asian (interdependent self construal).
15 of 375
Canadian students; first-person perspective: recall scene from own perspective, inward focus on self (looking from inside- out). Asian students: third-person perspective; recall scene from observers' perspective, outward focus on social situation.
16 of 375
Cultural differences- Kuhn & McPartland 1954 study?
Who am I exercise, list 20 statements that describe who you are. People from independent cultures tend to focus on their identity or preferences in an absence of others or context "I am friendly", "I like camping".
17 of 375
Interdependent culture?
People from interpendent focus on identity in relation to other people, groups or contexts, "I am Helen's friend", "I am serious at work but fun-loving with friends".
18 of 375
Cultural differences- Ma & Shoeneman 1997 study?
Aim: Does Western Exposure induce an independent self-construal in interdependent cultures? Method: Administered "Who Am I?" test to American students, as well as various different groups of people living in Kenya.
19 of 375
What were the different groups?
1. Kenyan students, greatest western exposure; exposed to western culture and educated in western tradition (Western orientation). 2. Workers in Nairobi; moderate exposure, exposed to western culture but no western orientation.
20 of 375
Group 3?
Maasai Tribes people- least western exposure, minimal western influence.
21 of 375
Westernisation associated with development of a more independent self-construal. Western orientation necessary for significant impact, not just exposure.
22 of 375
Summary of results?
1. American & Kenyan students showed a similar level of independent self-construal, 2. Maasai tribes people showed the lowest level of independent self-construal, 3.Workers in Nairobi showed a low level of independent because no orientation.
23 of 375
Western exposure alone is not sufficient to induce an independent self-construal. You also need an orientation.
24 of 375
Gender differences in self-construal?
In the US, women tend to hold more interdependent self-construals than men (Cross & Madson 1997), women more likely to characterise the self in terms of connections to others, while men more likely to prioritise differences and uniquenes.
25 of 375
Same pattern found accross cutlures, e.g. Japan (Kashima et al 1992). When selecting photos that are most revealing of who they are, women more likely than men to choose photos that include other people (Clancy & Dollinger 1993).
26 of 375
Women traits?
More empathetic & better judges of other people's emotions. More attuned to situational cues, e.g. other people's reactions.
27 of 375
Men traits?
More attuned to internal responses, such as increased heart-rate.
28 of 375
Reasons for gender differences in self-construal?
The Media Men typically portrayed in positions of power and agency, and women in more nurturing roles (Gilovich et al., 2016) Parental style Parents tend to talk more with their daughters (vs. sons) about emotions and being sensitive to others.
29 of 375
Friendship reason?
From an early age, girls and boys tend to play in gender-segregated groups that reinforce and amplify differences in self-construal (Maccoby, 1990).
30 of 375
Girls tend to focus on cooperative games orientated towards interpersonal relationships (e.g., families), whereas boys tend to emphasize competition (e.g., sport).
31 of 375
What is self awareness?
The self is an essential aspect of every person, BUT we do not think about it all the time.
32 of 375
Self- awareness theory (Duval & Wicklund 1972)?
Self-awareness: a psychological state in which we become aware of ourselves as objects (traits, feelings & behaviour) Objective self-awareness generated by circumstances that focus attention on self, e.g., in front of audience or mirror.
33 of 375
Development of self-awareness?
We are not born with self-awareness it developes over time (around 18 months).
34 of 375
Lewis & Brooks (1978) spot on nose and mirror test?
9-12 months- treated mirror image as other child- no recognition of spot on own nose (no self-awareness). 18 months- infant would curiously look at mirror and touch spot on nose (aware that person in the mirror is them).
35 of 375
Types of self (Carver & Scheier 1981)?
Private self- private thoughts, feelings and attitudes. Public self- how others see you (public image).
36 of 375
Public self-awareness?
Focus on how you are perceived by others, people become publicly self-aware when aspects of themselves can be seen & evaluated by others, e.g. giving a presentation, being photographed or filmed, being or feeling like the focus of others attention.
37 of 375
What are the consequences of public self-awareness?
1. Fear of negative evaluation can lead to nervousness & reduced self-esteem, 2. behaviour aimed at presenting oneself in a positive light; adherence to social standards (conforming), presentation of idealized version of self.
38 of 375
Private self?
Tendency to focus on internal states (private thoughts, feelings & attitudes), people become privately self-aware when...see face in mirror, experience physiological arousal leading to reflection on emotional state e.g. when happy, excited, angry.
39 of 375
What are the consequences of private self-awareness?
1. Intensified emotional response. 2. experience clarification of knowledge. 3. more likely to adhere to personal standards or ideals.
40 of 375
Scheier & Carver (1977) experiment? (Intensified emotional response).
Particiants read aloud either positive or negative statements (eliciting either elation or depression), participants who looked in mirror during task (ie privately self aware) displayed more extreme emotional responses (vs controls- no mirror).
41 of 375
With mirror higher elation and less depression compared to with no mirror.
42 of 375
Gibbons et al (1979) experiment? (clarification of knowledge).
Gave participants placebo (told it was drug to induce arousal & side-effects), participants with mirror reported less arousal & fewer-side effects than controls (no mirror).
43 of 375
Not privately self-aware- base self-knowledge on perceptions of drug. Privately self-aware- focus on how really feel (more accurate).
44 of 375
Scheier & Carver 1980 experiment? Adhering to personal standards.
Participants wrote counter-attitudinal essay, cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957), people feel negative arousal if their attitudes & behaviour are inconsistent- often addressed by changing attitudes to fit behaviour.
45 of 375
Should change attitudes to fit behaviour (writing essay). Participants who wrote essay in front of mirror displayed less attitude change than those without a mirror. Greater focus on true attitudes regardless of behaviour.
46 of 375
What is self-esteem?
A person's overall self-evaluation of self-worth. Self-evaluation as intrisically positive or negative. (Sedikides & Gregg 2002). We tend to focus on self- evaluations in specific domains that enhance our feelings of self worth (Crocker & Knight 2005
47 of 375
Most people strive to feel good about themselves.
48 of 375
Benefits of high self-esteem (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger & Vohs 2003)?
Assumed that SE influences various aspects of our lives. High SE leads to interpersonal relationships, academic performance, job performance, health.
49 of 375
Assumption (Baumeister et al 2003)?
High SE= better academic performance. Set higher aspirations? more resilient in face of failure? increased confidence to tackle different probems? Common belief: if raise students SE academic performance should improved, school based interventions.
50 of 375
Describe school based interventions?
Expect SE to be higher with an intervention than not. However, Many school-based interventions but typically they are not successful- they do raise self-esteem but do not raise academic performance like expected.
51 of 375
Getting good grades leads to high self-esteem, high self-esteem does not necessarily lead to good grades.
52 of 375
Self-esteem appears to be the outcome rather than the cause. Interpersonal relationships, academic performance, job performance and health all lead to high SE.
53 of 375
Development of self-esteem?
Parenting style of primary caregivers in childhood influences levels of SE later in life (Baumrind 1991). Two dimensions: demanding (controlling, imposing rules & punishments), responsive (warm and supportive).
54 of 375
Different types of parenting?
Authoritative; high demanding, high responsive, high-self-esteem. Authoritarian parent; high demainding, low resposive, reduced self-esteem. Permissive parent; low demanding, high responsive, reduced self-esteem.
55 of 375
Stability of self-esteem?
Chronic SE may be determined in childhood, but variations in low vs high SE throughout lifespan (Robins et al 2002 meta analysis).
56 of 375
Robins et al 2002 meta analysis.
6-11 years; relatively unstable still developing self-concept, twenties most stable, mid-adulthood remains relatively stable (fully developed self concept, less affected by temporary change , 60+ decline in stablity; major life changes (retirement).
57 of 375
Self-esteem scale (Rosenberg 1965)?
Indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements (0 Strongly Disagree;1 Disagree; 2 Agree; 3 Strongly Agree).
58 of 375
Trait self-esteem?
A person’s enduring level of self-regard across time Remains fairly stable across time in adults (although, see previous slide re. later in life).
59 of 375
People who report high trait self-esteem at one point in their life tend to report high trait self-esteem later (same for low trait self-esteem; Block & Robins, 1993).
60 of 375
State self-esteem?
Dynamic, changeable self-evaluations which can be dependent on situational influences (Heatherton & Polivy, 1991) E.g., rejection by a love interest or low grade on an exam.
61 of 375
Social media & self-esteem? (Vogel, Rose, Roberts & Eckles 2014).
According to social comparison theory (SCT; Festinger, 1954). We regularly compare ourselves to others, these comparisons can either boost or harm our SE.
62 of 375
Upward social comparison?
Compare self with superior other, negative affect, poorer self-evaluations, reduced SE.
63 of 375
Downward social comparison?
Compare self with inferior other, positive affect, improved self evaluations, heightened SE.
64 of 375
Vogel et al (2014)
Social media provides numerous opportunites for social comparison. We might expect temporary exposure to impact upon our state SE (situatuinal influence), chronic exposure to impact upon our trait SE (more enduring).
65 of 375
What type of Self-esteem is social media?
Social media is a trait SE. Even though it may be one event this is done very often and therefore would become a trait Se, not state.
66 of 375
Vogel study 1?
RQ: is frequent facebook (chronic exposure) use associated with lower trait self-esteem? Correlational results. Facebook exposure & trait self-esteem. Only when greater exposure to upward social comparisons.
67 of 375
Study 2?
RQ: What impact does temporary exposure to social media have on state self-esteem? Method: experimental (upward or downward profiles), reults: downward profiles improves state self-esteem. However, does not include control condition.
68 of 375
Conclusion of study 2?
Conclusion: Social media reduces SE via exposure to upward social comparisons Differential effect of social media, depending on whether...
69 of 375
Making upward vs downward social comparisons?
Upward (comparing to superior other): negative impact on SE Downward (comparing to inferior other): positive impact on SE.
70 of 375
Chronic vs temporary exposure?
Temporary: impacts on state SE (self-evaluation ‘right now’) Chronic (enduring over time): related to trait SE.
71 of 375
What is self-enhancement?
When our self esteem is threatened people tend to engage in a number of strategies to regain feelings of self-worth, e.g.: Self affirmation (Steele, 1988) Affirming oneself in a domain unrelated to the threatened domain.
72 of 375
Comparing and reflecting?
Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) Self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser, 1988).
73 of 375
Self-affirmation theory? (Steele, 1988)
Self-esteem threatened in one area (domain 1) rejection by love interest. Affirm valued aspect of self unrelated to threat (domain 2) focus on academic ability.
74 of 375
Self-affirmation & social media- Toma & Hancock 2013? Study 1?
Manipulated self-affirmation and manipulated Facebook exposure. Participants who were exposed to Self affirming Facebook (own Facebook) they took more responsibility for negative feedback and were less likely to blame other people.
75 of 375
If they are less self affirmed they will be more ego defensive about it. Suggest this is because we present our best selves on Facebook.
76 of 375
Study 2?
Asked students to engage in a public speaking task and were given either neutral feedback or negative feedback. Then given chouce of five unrelated studies, including browsing own facebook profile.
77 of 375
When people have had a blow from their self esteem they are more likely to want to look at their own profile due to the self affirming aspect mentioned above. (People’s Facebook shows them at their best).
78 of 375
Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954)?
Not simply passive perceivers in social comparisons, sometiems the goal determines the comparison: self-improvement; upward social comparison, self-enhancement; downward social comparison, accurate self evaluation; combinaton or compare to others.
79 of 375
Self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser 1988)?
The success of people close to us affects our self-esteem in one of two ways; social reflection- self-esteem is boosted by others accomplishments, social comparison; self-esteem is threatened by close others' accomplishments.
80 of 375
What determines whether we will engae in social reflection or social comparison? Social reflection?
Relevance- other is successful in domain irrelevant to you or certainty- certainty in own ability in that domain= social reflection.
81 of 375
Social comparison?
Relevance- other is successful in domain relevant to you and certainty- uncertainty of own ability in that domain= social comparison.
82 of 375
When a close other is successful in a domain that is relevant to us and we are uncertain of our own ability in that domain, we engage in social comparison Upward comparison (they are more successful) - threatens self-esteem.
83 of 375
How to maintain self-concept with examples?
Exagarrate ability of successful target e.g. "Helen's a genious- no point in comparing her to normal people". Change the target of comparison- "Forget Helen, I did better than Jane, Tim and Helen".
84 of 375
Distance self from successful target e.g. "I have nothng in common with Helen- I think I'll sit somewhere else in class". Devalue dimension of comparison e.g. "Helen may get better grades, but I have a better social life, being popular is more import
85 of 375
86 of 375
What are attitudes?
Evaluations of people, objects and ideas, differ in valence (positive or negative) and strength. People are not neutral observers of the world. We evaluate what we encounter. We form attitudes. Mostly on a spectrum.
87 of 375
Structure of attitudes?
Historical debate over number of components; unitary construct vs number of different components. One & Two- component models; attitude is affect towards or evaluation of attitude object, relatively private event, no behavioural component.
88 of 375
Three component models (e.g., Breckler, 1984): Inclusion of behavioural component.
89 of 375
Three component (or ABC) models?
Affective; feelings or emotions about attitude object, Behavioural; past, present or future anticipated behaviours associated with attitude object. Cognitive; beliefs, thoughts and attributes people have about attitude object.
90 of 375
Example of this model?
A- for example I like high heels B- for example I like high heels so next time I go shopping I will buy a pair. C- for example I like high heels so next time I go shopping I will buy a pair because I Iook good in them.
91 of 375
Function of attitudes?
Knowledge: Attitudes enable us to know the world Instrumental: Attitudes as a means to an end goal – helping to gain reward & avoid punishment Ego-defensive: Protecting one’s self-esteem or justifying actions, e.g. not doing PE as not fast.
92 of 375
Value-expressive: Attitudes enable us to express who we are & what we believe in – important for self-identity, e.g. what do I feel strongly about?
93 of 375
Attitude formation- direct exposure- mere exposure hypothesis?
Mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968): Tendency to develop more positive feelings toward objects and individuals the more we are exposed to them. e.g. if a child doesn't like broccoli keep giving it to them and in the end they will.
94 of 375
Moreland and Beach (1992)
Four different female confederates posed as college students & attended a different number of classes each (0 (no exposure), 5, 10, or 15(most amount of exposure) The women were ‘matched’ on appearance and did not interact with students (mere exposur
95 of 375
At the end of the term, students were shown pictures of the women & were asked to indicate their liking of them.
96 of 375
Preference for confederates who more classes (greater exposure).
97 of 375
Attitude formation- direct experience- Conditioning
You go to Grandmother’s house which has a smell of mothballs and you get pleasurable feelings from going to her house. Gradually the smell of mothballs will give you a pleasurable feeling because you associate them with Grandmother’s house.
98 of 375
Corona example
on holiday drinking corona, when you get home and have corona it reminds you of holiday and makes you happy.
99 of 375
Example of positive/negative
If a child is playing in a park and starts to play with a new child with a different race, it will depend on the parent’s feelings to this interaction to whether the child has positive or negative attitudes to this new child.
100 of 375
Attitude formation- Indirect or vicarious experience- social learning
Social learning theory (Bandura, 1973): The behaviour of one individual is a template for another individual Process of observation, imitation & modelling Often witnessed between parent (or significant adult) & child.
101 of 375
What the children did?
When the adults went in and hit the doll, children who were watching this behaviour would mimic this. Often seen in child/parent relationships.
102 of 375
Children may use ethnic slurs/ insults & claim to ‘hate’ a particular ethic group with no direct experience/ knowledge of that group (Allport, 1954) Modelling of parents’ attitude/ behaviour.
103 of 375
Attitude formation- other sources of learning- media?
Atkin (1980): Belief about healthiness of sugar-coated sweets and cereals related to amount of TV watched Children who watched a lot of TV (vs. those who watched only a little) twice as likely to believe that sugar-coated sweets/cereals are healthy
104 of 375
What is self-perception theory? (Bem, 1972)
Acquire self-knowledge by examining own behaviour Infer one’s attitude from own behaviour “Why did I do that?” Theory assumes that we form attitudes (and behave) without much deliberate thought “I behaved positively towards X, therefore I must like X
105 of 375
Measurement of attitudes- traditional measures?
Self-report/explicit measures (likert scale), quick, cheap & easy to use, but not always reliable; does not account for intentional witholding of true attitude (social desirability), soome people may be biased without realising it.
106 of 375
Measurement of attitudes- indirect measures?
Physiological Measures: Facial Electromyograph (EMG) records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes.
107 of 375
Indirect measures- association measures?
Infers ‘automatic’ attitudes by examining associations Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald et al., 1998): Derives attitudes from the speed at which people respond to pairing of concepts.
108 of 375
White + good and Black + bad vs. White + bad and Black + good.
109 of 375
Implicit association test? (IAT)
Responding more quickly to one type of pairing suggests the perceiver associates those two concepts Someone who is racially prejudiced will be faster to press the same key for a Black face and a negative word compared to a Black face and a positive w
110 of 375
Approximately 2/3 of White respondents show moderate to strong intergroup bias when considering White and Black faces (Nosek et al., 2002) Quicker to respond to Black/ negative & White/ positive vs. Black/ positive & White/ negative.
111 of 375
What is intergroup bias?
Preference for ingroup vs. outgroup. Does not mean you do not like the other group it just means you like your group better.
112 of 375
Criticisms of implicit association test?
Indirect measures of attitudes are considered the most reliable way to measure socially undesirable attitudes (e.g., prejudice) Still under development and should not necessarily be considered a measure of ‘true attitudes’.
113 of 375
Continued...Cognitive ability?
Individuals who are slower to process information show more biased responses (e.g., McFarland & Crouch, 2002) .
114 of 375
Continued... are associations attitudes?
Associations could reflect cultural knowledge or exposure (e.g., to stereotypes within the media) that the person does not endorse themselves…
115 of 375
They are still under development, relatively new in social psychology, should not put too much confidence in these being reliable attitudes. People can cheat the IAT, get used to ignoring automatic attitude and just following the rules.
116 of 375
Attitudes and behaviour- classic studies?
Classic studies suggest that attitudes do not predict behaviours well (LaPiere, 1934).
117 of 375
LaPiere study?
Examined prejudice towards Chinese people (anti-Asian prejudice high amongst Americans in 1930s) Chinese couple visited 250 establishments – refused service only once.
118 of 375
Six months later?
Six months later, questionnaire sent to each establishment asking “Will you accept members of the Chinese race as guests?” 128 responses: 92% said ‘No’ (only 1% said ‘Yes’; 7% ‘Uncertain’) Discrepancy between attitude and actual behaviour.
119 of 375
What does this show?
Remember, when talking about prejudicial attitudes & behaviour, these are not socially desirable May hold the attitude, but not show the behaviour.
120 of 375
What is attitude behaviour relationship?
Complex, certain conditions that promote or disrupt the correspondence, attitude more likely to predict behaviour if expressed publicly (vs questionnaire). Public attitude & public behaviour similar whereas private may differ.
121 of 375
Theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Azjen 1991).
If we have a attentin to act a certain way then we will behave in that way. Look at slides for examples.
122 of 375
MODE model (Fazio 1990)
Accessible attitudes: those attitudes that can be recalled from memory with ease (Eagly & Chaiken, 1998) Often automatically activated.
123 of 375
What makes an attitude highly accessible?
Strength of attitude: stronger attitudes > more accessible Frequency of attitude expression or activation: greater frequency > more accessible.
124 of 375
Attitude behaviour relationship with accessible attitudes?
strong for highly accessible attitudes (Fazio, 1986) Behaviour automatically guided by the attitude. People with strong positive attitudes towards Greenpeace more likely to make a donation vs. those with weak positive attitudes.
125 of 375
Stronger attitudes > more accessible > greater influence on behaviour.
126 of 375
But people can engage in deliberative and planned behaviour that is not in line with attitude, if sufficient:.
127 of 375
Motivation to deliberate about available information & overcome influence of automatic attitude.
128 of 375
Time, energy, & ability to overcome impact of automatic attitude & engage in deliberative & planned behavior contrary to attitude.
129 of 375
Do attitudes predict behaviour?
More likely if both relate to same concept, subjective norms are in line with attitude & have perceived control over behaviour, attitudes are highly accessible, low motivation or opportunity to control response to automatic attitude.
130 of 375
Variability in attitudes?
If we have been to the gym for 2 hours we are more likely to have the negative attitudes of a burger at that point e.g. unhealthy.
131 of 375
Variability in attitudes?
Context determines which aspect of an attitude is activated and accessible.
132 of 375
Wittenbrink, Judd & Park (2001)?
: White participants shown white & black faces against different backgrounds Automatic positive attitude when presented with church background but negative attitude when background is more crime-associated.
133 of 375
Efforts of an individual or group of individuals to influence us to think how they want us to think which will influence our behaviour.
134 of 375
The Yale attitude approach (Hovland et al 1953)?
Persuasive communications involved; source, message, audience, differences in any of these three factors can affect persuasiveness of a message, well established approach to what is influential in persuasive messages.
135 of 375
The source- credibilty?
Credible sources more persuasive. Credibility determined by; expertise- perceptions of knowledge, experience & competence. Trustworthiness; perceived motivation to communicate message or expertise without bias. E&T not always related.
136 of 375
The source- likeability?
Likeable sources are more persuasive, likeability can be: physical appearance and similarity. Source likeability & perceived trustworthiness often related. Infer trustworthiness through likeability and vice versa.
137 of 375
The message- fear?
Emotional appeal such as fear arousing messages commonly used in relation to pro-health or anti-risk taking attitudes and behaviours- e.g. anti drink-driving campaign.
138 of 375
Does fear work?
Messages are most effective when they evoke a moderate amount of fear. Low fear isnt motivating and high fear is distracting so takes the message away. Moderate fear gets people motivated to attend to these messages and make changes without terrified
139 of 375
The message- two-sided arguments?
Persuasive messages & arguments have two or more sides. Effectiveness of two-sided arguments depends on characteristics of the audience.
140 of 375
Present both sides of argument when...
Intelligent audience initially against the argument.
141 of 375
Present only one (desired) side of argument when...
Less intelligent audience initially for the argument.
142 of 375
The message- order of presentation (Hovland, Campbell & Brock 1957)?
Primacy effect: individuals are most influenced by what they hear of see first, lays foundation. Recency effect: indivdauls are most influenced by what they hear or see last, better memory. Dependent on following factors.
143 of 375
Experiment for this?
50 UG students presented with two opposing arguments regarding inclusion of exam as prerequiste for graduation.
144 of 375
Variables in this?
IV1- message order (pro/con vs con/pro), IV2: message relevance (high affecting participants/low not affecting participants now).
145 of 375
High relevance; primacy effect, when pro-argument presented first, most favourable attitude to implementation of exam. Primacy effect; when con- argument presented first, less favourable attitude to implementation of exam.
146 of 375
Low relevance?
Recency effect; when pro-argument presented last, more favourable attitude to implementation of exam. recency effect when con-argument presented last, less favourable attitude to implementation of exam.
147 of 375
Therefore, high relevance primacy effect, low relevance, recency effect. So if your argument is relevant better to present this first, but if it is not relevant better to present yours last.
148 of 375
The audience and self-esteem?
Early research suggested that people with low SE are more easily persuaded, more recently acknowledged, people with high SE as easily persuaded just, less liely to admit it or deny or forget holding original attitude.
149 of 375
The audience and gender- early research?
suggested that females were more easily persuaded than males (e.g., Crutchfield, 1955) Relates to similar finding with social influence: women more likely to succumb to normative influence – alter attitude to behaviour to fit group ‘norm’.
150 of 375
Recent research?
that this is due to methodological bias in earlier research (Sistrunk & McDavid, 1971) Researchers usually male: male bias in design of experiments.
151 of 375
When male-orientated topic – females more susceptible When female-orientated topic – males more susceptible Neutral topic – no gender difference.
152 of 375
Two routes to persuasion? Elaboration- likelihood model ELM (Petty & Cacioppo 1986)?
Central route: Audience processes messages carefully – ‘deep thinking’. Persuasion best achieved by strong arguments and evidence. Best to achieve enduring attitude change.
153 of 375
Peripheral route: Audience does not process message in depth and is persuaded by superficial cues. (how pretty the toothpaste is).
154 of 375
Which route do you choose?
Depends on… Ability - high when much time, no distraction, message repeated Motivation - high when high personal relevance, or when person has high ‘need for cognition’ (trait).
155 of 375
Chaiken (1980 experiment)?
UG students at University of Toronto (UoT), brochure used to (try to) change attitudes towards a new term structure.
156 of 375
IV1: Relevance of Topic (high vs. low) High: Changing UoT term structure next year Low: Changing UoT term structure in 5 years IV2: Likeableness of Source (high vs. low) High: Author likes UoT & students there
157 of 375
IV3: Strength of Argument (No. of arguments - 1 vs 5) DV: Attitude Change.
158 of 375
High relevance: No. of arguments more influential than likeability (central route – strength vs. superficial cues) Low relevance: Likeability more influential than no. of arguments (peripheral route – superficial cues vs. strength). i
159 of 375
AGAIN, relevance important factor when considering how to present argument or message.
160 of 375
Chaiken (1980) & Haugtvedt & Wegener (1994)?
When framing an argument or message to maximise persuasiveness, must consider what relevance it has to audience.
161 of 375
Low relevance?
Superficial cues most persuasive (peripheral route), recency effect: present argument last for easy recall.
162 of 375
High relevance?
Strong arguments based on evidence most effective (central route), most enduring attitude change, primacy effect: present argument, first, to lay foundation.
163 of 375
Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger 1957)?
Negative arousal when our behaviour is not consistent with our attitude. External reward for behaviour reduces dissonance, justification for behaviour contradicting attitude. When insufficient reward, no justification for behaviour.
164 of 375
Attempt to reduce dissonance by altering attitude to fit with or justify behaviour (or vice versa).
165 of 375
Festinger & Calsmith (1959) experiment?
IV- How much money participants were paid for saying they enjoyed the task Levels of IV- 2 according to video, but there's actually 3 DV- Rating of task enjoyment to experimenter.
166 of 375
Inclusion of control condition is key, we can confidently say that the people in the dissonance condition changed their attitude. As control condition shows that the task was boring. Cognition dissonance theory is best for explaining this experiment.
167 of 375
Self-perception theory (SPT) (Bem 1972)?
Alternative to cognitive dissonance (CD) account CD: Change existing attitude to fit behaviour Bem argued that people could simply infer their attitudes from their behaviour “I behaved like X, therefore my attitude must be X”
168 of 375
Attitude formed in response to behaviour (vs. changing attitude) We can assume that Festinger & Carlsmith’s (1959) participants found the task boring (controls rated as low enjoyment).
169 of 375
Attitude formed before the behaviour (vs. in response) But sometimes, we may not have a strong attitude towards something….so attitude could be inferred by behaviour (SPT).
170 of 375
Resistance to attitude change?
Attitude inoculation: ‘Immunising’ people by exposing them to small doses of contra-arguments ‘Weak attacks’ to individual’s attitude or position Easily refuted.
171 of 375
Immunised’ people are better at resisting persuasion attempts. Why?
Prepares them for resisting stronger arguments Already considered some effective rebuttals against the (weak) persuasive argument Strengthens belief in existing attitude Strong attitudes are harder to change (Wood et al., 2003).
172 of 375
Resistance theory (Brehm 1966)?
When freedom to perform a certain behaviour is threatened = unpleasant state of reactance Desire to restore sense of freedom and choice Higher likelihood to perform undesired behaviour.
173 of 375
Pennebaker and Sanders (1976)?
IV: 2 signs on college bathroom walls: (A) ‘Do not write on these walls under any circumstances’ (B) ‘Please don’t write on these walls.’ DV: Amount of graffiti on walls.
174 of 375
Result: More graffiti on walls with (A).
175 of 375
Success of persuasion attempt depends on: Various characteristics of the source, message & audience Current processing style of the audience Whether resistance is strong or reactance is evoked in the audience.
176 of 375
Summary continued...
Cognitive dissonance theory & self-perception theory underline that people can also change (or form) their attitudes as a result of their own behaviour Even in absence of persuasion attempt.
177 of 375
178 of 375
What is an affect?
Defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods. Can be split into emotions and moods.
179 of 375
What is an emotion?
Caused by specific event Very brief in duration Specific and numerous in nature Usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions Action-oriented in nature.
180 of 375
What is a mood?
Cause is often general and unclear Last longer than emotions More general (positive/ negative) Generally not indicated by distinct expressions Cognitive in nature.
181 of 375
Why do we have emotions?
Bodily arousal- emotions involve physiological activity, including hormones, brain structures and muscles. Social expressive- emotions are important for communication and help us navigate social interactions. Emotions are necessary.
182 of 375
What is the James-Lange theory?
Arousal (snake)- heart pounding, sweating- fear, emotion. We feel emotion because biological changes caused by stress leads to the body changing and our mind recognises this feeling. Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses
183 of 375
to emotion-arousing stimuli.
184 of 375
What is the Cannon-Bard theory?
Arousal (snake) leads to either heart pounding, sweating or fear, emotion. Emotional-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion.
185 of 375
What is the Schachter-SInger two factor theory?
Arousal- hear pounding, sweating or cognitive label- fear, emotion. Emotions are more complex than the other theories suggest. To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused, cognitively label the arousal.
186 of 375
Biology and cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
187 of 375
Evolutionary perspective- Darwin (1872)?
Darwin (1872), in support of his theory of evolution studied whether the expressions of the emotions in man were analogous to those in animals.
188 of 375
Evolutionary perspective- Silvan Tomkins (1962)?
Silvan Tomkins (1962) argued emotions have a shared biological heritage with what is called emotion in animals.
189 of 375
Basic emotions?
Paul Ekman argued that emotion is genetically determined so that facial expressions of discrete emotions are interpreted in the same way across most cultures. 6 basic emotions- anger, fear, disgust, surprise, happiness, sadness.
190 of 375
Distinct expressions to the 6 emotions?
Happiness- cheeks raised, lip corners pulled. Anger- brow lowered, lips tightened, Sadness- lip corners depressed, inner eyebrows raised. Fear- brows raised, lips stretched, jaw drop. Disgust- nose wrinkled, lower lips depressed.
191 of 375
Surprised- eyes wide open, jaw drop. There is some evidence of contempt as an emotion. All these features of emotion are found acccross cultures in adults and children.
192 of 375
Study to show basic emotions? Ekman and Friesen (1971)
Compared Western participants with participants from South East Highlands of New Guinea where there is little contact with Caucasians Participants were told a story and then shown a set of 3 faces.
193 of 375
What were they asked to do and results?
They were asked to select the face which showed the emotion appropriate to the story. Results were replicated by reversing the situation.
194 of 375
Cultural differences (Matsumoto et al 1988)?
Assessed experiences concerning joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame and guilt and asked multiple questions including questions about physiological and expressive reactions. Asked individualist (USA) and collectivist cultures. Qualitative study.
195 of 375
Both cultures agreed which emotions produced the most reactions BUT Americans reported more bodily reactions (lump in throat; change in breathing) and expressive reactions (laughing, crying, screaming).
196 of 375
Two views of emotion- evolutionary?
Emotions are biologically rooted, part of our evolutionary history, emotions serve specific functions, emotions are universal accross cultures.
197 of 375
Two views of emotion- social constructivist?
Emotions are constructed by cultural values, institutions and language. Biology (brain, physiology), play little to no role emotions, emotions are open systems, can be constructed in many different ways.
198 of 375
Dimensions of emotion?
Valence and Arousal.
199 of 375
Affect circulumplex model?
Simple model of emotion.
200 of 375
Sources of emotions and moods?
Personality – Extraversion is associated with positive affect Day of the week – Our mood improved on a Friday. Age - Negative emotions occur less as people get older. Sunnier weather does not necessarily make us happier.
201 of 375
Individual differences- extraversion is correlated with positive affect?
Temperament models suggest that positive affect is the core of the Extraversion dimension Instrumental models posit that traits indirectly affect outcomes through choice of situations or other intervening processes (e.g. social activities).
202 of 375
Social activity is more likely to have a positive affect which is why there is a link to extraversion. Correlation is not causation.
203 of 375
Individual differences- positivity offset and negativity bias?
Positive offset is the tendency to experience a mildly positive mood when nothing in particular is going on Negative bias is the opposite. Some people tend to feel negative even when nothing is happening.
204 of 375
Link of these?
Individuals characterized by a large negativity bias rate very negative stimuli more extremely than individuals characterized by a small negativity bias.(Norris et al., 2011).
205 of 375
Day of the week belief?
Blue Monday, Monday is a negative day. Some empirical evidence support for the general notion of a weekly mood cycle, mood improved on a Friday (e.g. Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003).
206 of 375
However? (Stonea, Schneidera and Harterb 2012)
They found no blue Monday, and that people are better at the weekend and better on Friday. Also, no difference between a Saturday and Sunday like expected.
207 of 375
Negative emotions seem to occur less as people get older (Castensen et al., 2000). Tested participants 18-65, most negative affect between 18-34, this goes down at 35-64 and slightly back down at 65-94.
208 of 375
Denissen, Butalid, Penke & van Aken 2008- The effect of: temperature, wind power, sunlight, precipitation and air pressure positive and negative mood.
209 of 375
Some positive association with temperature and a negative association with wind power and sunlight. No significant main effect on positive mood BUT this differed between individuals.
210 of 375
Facial feedback?
Emotional facial configurations produce different patterns of automatic arousal and subjective feelings consistent with the associated emotion Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988).
211 of 375
BUT Wagenmakers et al. (2016 did not replicate results HOWEVER Noah, Schul, & Mayo (2018) show that this might be due to methodology.
212 of 375
Postural feedback (Riskind and Gotay 1982 study 4)?
Participants placed in a hunched, threatened physical posture verbally reported self-perceptions of greater stress than subjects who were placed in a relaxed position.
213 of 375
Postural feedback (Stepper and Strack 1993 study 1)?
Assessed whether the experience of pride was influenced by body posture. Participants felt prouder if the assumed an upright position.
214 of 375
There is a difference between emotions, mood and affect Emotions are important for your survival Commonly agreed that there are 6 basic emotions Expression of basic emotions are recognized across cultures although they might be experienced differ.
215 of 375
Emotions can be understood in terms of valance and arousal Emotions can be influenced by personality, time of week, and age Bodily feedback can affect the way we experience emotions.
216 of 375
217 of 375
What is an emotion regulation?
Emotion regulation consists of the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions, especially their intensive and temporal features, to accomplish one’s goals Thompson (1994).
218 of 375
What is it concerned with?
It is concerned not only with the management of expression of emotions but also with the management of internal states. It includes not only the inhibition of emotional reactions but also maintenance and enhancement of emotional reactions.
219 of 375
Biting your lip at an innapropriate comment to stop you laughing out loud, forcing yourself to smile when feeling sad in a social interaction.
220 of 375
What is the appraisal theory?
The modal model of emotion generation, describes in abstract and general terms the stages that constitute the formation of an emotional response. This model suggests that the emotion generation process occurs in a particular sequence over time.
221 of 375
Process underlyin emotion regulation- James Gross's model?
Situation selection (keep away from situation)- situation modification (if not possible, change something about the situation)- attentional deplyment (change what to focus on without changing the physical environment).
222 of 375
Sequence of this?
Situation,attention, appraisal, response.
223 of 375
Cognitive change (change the way you appraise and interpret the meaning of a stimulus- resoinse modulation (change the way you express emotions).
224 of 375
Situation selection?
 refers to the actions we take that make it more likely we’ll be in a situation we expect will give rise to the emotions we’d like to have (or less likely that we’ll be in a situation that will give rise to emotions we’d prefer not to have).
225 of 375
Situation modification?
Situation modification refers to efforts to directly change a situation so as to modify its emotional impact.
226 of 375
Attentional development?
Attentional deployment refers to influencing emotional responding by re-directing attention within a given situation.
227 of 375
Cognitive change?
refers to changing one or more of one’s appraisals in a way that alters the situation’s emotional significance, by changing how one thinks either about the situation itself or about one’s capacity to manage the demands it poses.
228 of 375
Response modulation?
refers to influencing experiential, behavioral, or physiological responses after response tendencies have already been initiated. For example, one may hide from another person the emotion one is feeling by inhibiting emotional behaviors.
229 of 375
Appraisal theory steps?
Situation: the sequence begins with a situation (real or imagined) that is emotionally relevant. Attention: attention is directed towards the emotional situation. Appraisal: the emotional situation is evaluated and interpreted.
230 of 375
Response: an emotional response is generated, giving rise to loosely coordinated changes in experiential, behavioral, and physiological response systems.
231 of 375
Reappraisal- Winecoff et al (2011) study? fMRI?
Participants were presented with images and on each trial, participants viewed positive, negative or neutral pictures and either naturally experienced the image (‘Experience’ condition) or attempted to detach themselves from the image.
232 of 375
(‘Reappraise’ condition – thought as themselves as detached and objective third party, dinstance yourself from the scene). Afterwards they had to rate their emotion on a 8 item likert scale.
233 of 375
Across both age groups, cognitive reappraisal activated prefrontal regions similar to those reported in prior studies of emotion regulation, while emotional experience activated the bilateral amygdala.
234 of 375
Reappraisal brain areas?
The contrast of reappraise > experience revealed that Activation in the d1PFC, dmPFC ad the IPL increased when participant They are able to recruitt PFC when asked to regulate their negative emotions by reappraisal.
235 of 375
PFC and amygdala?
These results show that emotion regulation modulates the functional connectivity between the amygdala and the LIFG Their PFC will downregulate the amygdala and help emotion regulation. to engaged in reappraisal >>>> what that means is that…
236 of 375
For both positive and negative stimuli, and for both younger and older adults, LIFG activation increased to ‘Reappraise’ trials compared to ‘Experience’ trials.
237 of 375
Johnstone et al (2007)?
They looked at similar task but compared health individuals with individuals with depression. Shown negative stimuli and had to respond to this. They found during reappraisal the patients with depression were less able to change.More Pfc in controls.
238 of 375
What does this show?
There is some interpretation in the stimuli. However, there is a distinct relationship with the amydgala. Activation dies down. Negative correlation in controls, positive in depression.Failure to down regulate the amygdala in depression.
239 of 375
Depression and situation modification (Milgram et al. 2015)?
Participants were shown sad, positive or neutral images and then given two options: 1) seeing the same image or 2) seeing another image. Depressed participants chose to see sad images again. Differences in emotion regulation goals.
240 of 375
Summary of healthy people?
They are able to recruit PFC when asked to regulate their negative emotions by reappraisal. Their PFC will downregulate the amygdala and help emotion regulation. They are also able to change situations to reduce negative emotions.
241 of 375
Summary of depressed patients?
They are able to recruit PFC when asked to regulate their negative emotions by reappraisal. But their PFC won’t downregulate the amygdala. They do not try to change situations to feel better—possibly due to the lower emotion regulation goals.
242 of 375
What is wellbeing?
Wellbeing refers to optimal psychological functioning and experience.
243 of 375
Two views of wellbeing?
1. Hedonic well-being (subjective wellbeing)- consists of pleasure or happiness. 2. Eudaimonic well-being (psychological wellbeing)- is more than just happiness, consists of fulfilling one's potentials.
244 of 375
Hedonic wellbeing (subjective) components?
Well-being consists of pleasure or happiness. Three components Life satisfaction Lack of negative emotions Presence of positive emotions.
245 of 375
Too much happiness is not always good. A moderate level of hedonic wellbeing predicts one's success most (Oishi et al 2007). Success according to salary in this study.
246 of 375
Eudaimonic wellbeing (psycholocial) components?
Purpose in life (e.g., has aims for living) Personal growth (e.g., feeling of continued development) Autonomy (e.g., is self-determined) Self-acceptance (e.g., positive attitudes toward the self) Positive relations with others.
247 of 375
Environmental mastery (e.g., able to choose contexts suitable to personal needs). This type of well-being is more than just happiness, fulfils one's potentials in life.
248 of 375
Habitual reappraisal?
Gross & John (2003)- those who habitually use reappraisal show better subjective and psychological wellbeing. People are better at reappraisal tend to score higher in both psychological and subjective wellbeing. This can be assessed through questionn
249 of 375
Repraissal is negatively linked with depression. People are low in using reappraisal strategies tend to score higher in measures of depression.
250 of 375
Does emotion regulation always help well-being?
Expression/response- suppression. Does not necessarily help wellbeing.
251 of 375
Supression of responses?
Response focused vs antecedent focused emotional regulations.
252 of 375
Reppraisal vs suppression?
Reappraisal: E.g., I control my emotion by changing the way I think about the situation. Suppression E.g., I control my emotions by not expressing them. I keep my emotions to myself.
253 of 375
Implications of reappraisal and supression?
People who habitually use suppression have reduced well-being, increased depression and reduced self-esteem. Not anytype of emotional regulation is good for your well-being.
254 of 375
Thought suppression study? (Wenzleff et al., 1988)?
Two groups. Group A suppression- In the next five minutes, please verbalize your thoughts. This time, please try not to think of a white bear. Every time you have “white bear” come to mind, please ring the bell.
255 of 375
Group A expression?
In the next five minutes, please think about a white bear and ring the bell whenever you think about “white bear.
256 of 375
Group B?
Did the opposite, expression first then suppression. The more participants were told not to look at the white bear or talk about it the more they would.
257 of 375
Wegner & Erber (1992) explanations? Automatic target search?
Looks for the unwanted thought all the time to monitor one’s thought and Tests whether one’s thought suppression attempts succeed or fail.
258 of 375
Controlled distractor search?
Once the automatic target search finds the unwanted thought, we recruit controlled distractor search to find distractors (something else to think).
259 of 375
Automatic target search makes the unwanted thought activated and highly accessible especially when it is difficult to use the effortful/controlled distractor search mechanisms. Difficult task under time pressure and with limited cognitive resources.
260 of 375
Thought suppression and emotional regulation? (Pennebaker & Beal 1986)
Control condition: write about a different trivial topic each evening (4 nights; e.g., the shoes they were wearing). Expression condition: write about a traumatic event and their emotional feelings associated with the event each evening (4 nights).
261 of 375
Participants in the expression condition showed increased thoughts about what they have written but made a fewer visits to the health centres than did those in the.control condition.
262 of 375
Overall and writing?
Writing helps reduce negative effects due to thought suppression and expression suppression. Writing also helps change cognitive reappraisal about the events.
263 of 375
“Although I have not talked with anyone about what I wrote, I was finally able to deal with it, work through the pain instead of trying to block it out. Now it doesn't hurt to think about it.”
264 of 375
Several strategies in emotion regulation. Some strategies (e.g., reappraisal; expression) appear to help hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, while other (e.g., suppression) do not necessarily help one’s wellbeing.
265 of 375
Summary- individual differences?
Individual differences in The effects of each emotion regulation strategy The tendency to use each emotion regulation strategy.
266 of 375
267 of 375
What is intelligence?
General mental capability, that involces the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn from experience (Gottfredson, 1997).
268 of 375
History of intelligence- Francis Galton (1986)?
Individual differences and euginics, movement that argued for selective reproduction and immigration laws based on IQ.
269 of 375
Jensen (2002) view on Galton?
It seemed obvious and even unarguable to Galton that, from a eugenic viewpoint, superior mental and behavioural capacities, as well as physical health, are advantageous, not only to an individual but for the well-being of society as a whole”.
270 of 375
History of intelligence- Alfred Binet (1905, 1916)?
Created the first intelligence scale, Binet-Simon scale to come up with something that was not subjetcive. Focused on attention, memory, and problem solving. He used his scale to put people into different categories to see if they could pass the task
271 of 375
Problems with the scale?
Uses words like "idiot" which would not be used now.
272 of 375
History of intelligence- William Stern (1912)?
Developed the idea of intelligence quotien. IQ= mental age/chronical age multiplied by 100.
273 of 375
History of intelligence- Lewis Terman (1916)?
Revised the Binet-Simon test; Stanford-Binet test. Tested a wide variety of children, looked to see if this criteria was widely applicable, found he changed the test quite a bit due to new criteria. Average IQ should be 100.
274 of 375
How should the tests be conducted?
In a standardised way to understand how children perform in terms of an average.
275 of 375
History of intelligence- David Wechsler (1955)?
WAIS-IV (Wechsler adult intelligence scale). 10 subtests with 5 supplemetary tests, 4 areas: verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning ndex, working memory index, processing speed index and general ability index.
276 of 375
Compares scores of test-taker to those of others in his/her general age group (standardised)- average is 100. Two thirds of all scores fall within 85-115 (normal scores)- normal distribution.
277 of 375
Has a multitude of tests, enables us to measure intelligence in a global way. Can be administered to a wide range of ages. Between the ages of 16-90. Idea is to compare individuals.
278 of 375
Generall intelligence (g)- Spearman?
Positive manifold- a variety of test scores all correlate positively together. Underlying all of the positively correlated IQ subtests is a general factor of intelligence or a g-factor.
279 of 375
Tyeps of intelligence (Raymond Cattell 1966)?
1) Fluid intelligence (Gf)- capacity to reason and solve novel problems, independent of any knowledge from the past, e.g. puzzles. Does not rely on knowledge in the past.
280 of 375
Ability to use skills, knowledge and experience- uses knowledge that we know from the past.
281 of 375
Intelligence accross the lifespan?
When we age- being more physically active can preserve fluid intelligence (Lovden, Xu & Wang 2013). Biggest predicter of being smarter in old age is being smarter in childhood (Deary, Pattie & Starr 2013).
282 of 375
Why intelligence matters?- Education
IQ scores are strongly and unambiguously correlated with two measures of education; achievement (exam results) and duration (how long you stay at school, university?)/
283 of 375
Limitations to this idea?
Having a high IQ doesn't ensure educational success, other characteristics like conscientiousness, motivation, self-control and social skills could have an impact. Education might improve intelligences, findings do not apply to peoplewithdifficulties
284 of 375
Why intelligence matters?- Jobs
Intelligence are predictive or performance in the workplace; monetary worth of a person's output, efficiency, managers' ratings. Better job performance = higher income.
285 of 375
Why intelligence matters?- Social class
Income is one of the most important indicators of social class, smarter people tend to end up in higher social class. IQ causes better job performance vs higher social class caused both better job performance and higher IQ.
286 of 375
Why intelligence matters?- Health
Smarter people do healthier things, are less likely to have medical conditions (Gottfredson 2004) and less likely to be hospitalised for psychiatric conditions (Gale, Batty).
287 of 375
Why intelligence matters?- Mortality
IQ-death connection (Deary, 2008), lower intellience not a cause, but an indicator of pooer health, genes that give people healthier bodies than others give them healthier brains (genetic correlation), higher IQ people are better at noticing risks.
288 of 375
Most studies are cottrlational so there is a need to look at cause and effect and there is a model that looks at the causes of intelligent differences and consequences of these.
289 of 375
Why intelligence matters?- other variables
Creativity- 'alternative uses' task, more patents and artistic prizes (Wai 2005), political and religious beliefs; higher intelligence scorers more socially (Deary) and economically (Carl 2014) liberal. Smarter people less religious. Lifesatisfaction
290 of 375
When is having a high IQ worse?
Social skills- no clear evidence for a negative relationship between intelligence and social skills (Wolf & Ackerman 2005), short-sightedness- smarter people are more likely to need glasses as glasses links to reading more as a child (Teasdale 1988.
291 of 375
Continued... bipolar disorder?
Extremely intelligent people are more prone to bipolar disorder (Gale 2013), variables that affect the bipolar link, for example it is more observable in men.
292 of 375
The biology of intelligence?
Evolution- intellgence is an adaption, we have adapted to it in problem solving. Behavioural genertics; quantitative genetics (genes and intelligence differences), molecular genetics (genes that cause intelligence differences).
293 of 375
Are there genetic effects on intelligence?-Twin studies
Identical twins IQs are more similar than fraternal twins (Plomin & Spinath, 2004). Only 50% of variance of intelligence is shared in genetics. Perhaps the reason why identical twins are more similar (IQ) is because their treated same.
294 of 375
Are there genetic effects on intelligence?- Adoption studies
Siblings reared together in the same home have IQs that are more similar than those of adopted children raised together in the same environment (McGue 1992). Longitudinal study tested parenting influence on IQ, weak, non-significant *** (Beaver 2014)
295 of 375
Parents that are more intelligent are likely to have more of an positive influence with their child which would mask this association... will develop the child into a healthy individual giving the best chance to succeed.
296 of 375
Genes vs environment
Twin studied showed that the shared environment appears to have a very small effect on intelligence (Harris, 2009). Almost all variance is explained by a combination of genes and the non-shared environment.
297 of 375
Intelligence and the brain?
Brain size is related to intelligence (Pietschnig 2014). A predominantly negative correlation between intelligence and cortical thickness in early childhood to a postive correlation in late childhood and beyond (Shaw et al. 2004).
298 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores?- "The Mozart effect"
Rauscher, Shaw & Ky (1993). spatial IQ task, students were 8 or 9 points higher when listening to Mozart. Neither robust nor reliable though, as has not been replicated (Pietschnig, Voracek & Formann 2010). Control condition was no music.
299 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores? Brain training
n-back task- participants who spend one month training on a version of the n-back that improved their scores on matrix reasoning test of fluid intelligence (Jaeggi 2008), produce short-term effects that do not generalise (Melby 2013).
300 of 375
Might be a useful tool for cognitive interventon in at least normal age (Karbach & Verhaghen 2014). Did not produce good results in younger adults.
301 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores?- nutrition
Level of iodine plays a crucial role in the intellectual development of children (Qian et al., 2005) Omega-3 fish oils supplement do not seem to have any beneficial effect on brain function (Kennedy et al., 2013).
302 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores?- Toxic substances
Prenatal or early postnatal (alcohol, drugs, cigarettes, radiation, lead-based paint dust/petrol fumes) affect IQ (Huang et al., 2012; Neisser et al., 1996). Bi-directional view, this was done in children who were already malnourished.
303 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores?- breastfeeding
Breast-fed (>6 months), 3-6 IQ points higher on vocabulary intelligence test than not breast fed (Oddy 2013), higher scores in maths, reading and spelling in 10 year olds, adjusted for socio-demographics of mother and father+ earlystimulation @home.
304 of 375
Confounding variables?
Walfisch, Sermer, Cressman & Koren.
305 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores?- education
Education occurring even as late as in the middle teenage years can indeed have a statistically significant and sizeable effect on IQ scores (Brinch & Galloway, 2012)
306 of 375
What’s happening in school that might cause these improvements?
Intensive educational projects for disadvantage children? (e.g., Perry Preschool Project, Abecedarian Project) Early childhood education produce persistent effects on achievement and academic success, but not on IQ (Barnett, 1998).
307 of 375
Can we raise IQ scores?- Flynn effect
Observed rise in IQ scores over time, can be seen on a variety of tasks, average IQ score increases decade by decase. Developed countried higher IQ than developing, but developing increases more.
308 of 375
What needs to be done?
We need to ocntinually renorm intelligence tests because it can differ year by year, e.g. if someone gives death penalty.
309 of 375
Controversies- sex differences in intelligence?
The average IQ scores of girls and boys were exactly the same (Johnson 2008), but there are differences in more specific abilities (Miller & Halpern 2014).
310 of 375
Women do better than men on verbal measures, men do better that women on spatial ability. Also, males tends to be over-represented at the very high and very low levels of intelligence.
311 of 375
Controversies- race differences in intelligence?
Black children IQ scores were 1 SD lower than those of white children on WPPSI test (Duncan 1966), adjustments of differences in poverty, reduced difference by 28%, adjustment in home environment- reduced by 28%.
312 of 375
Adjustments for economic and social differences → eliminated differences.
313 of 375
There are intelligence differences among people; these differences are measurable and might be influenced in part by biology. All mental abilities are correlated. Having high IQ has real-life consequences – many of them positive.
314 of 375
Although intelligence is not immutable, it is unlikely to be infinitely malleable. Tools for raising intelligence – which might partly have caused the Flynn effect – seem to be in the form of education.
315 of 375
316 of 375
First view of intelligence- Catell (1966)?
1. catell: fluid and crystallised intelligence. Fluid intelligence is the ability to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. Crystallised is rooted in experience and based on knowledge.
317 of 375
Both increase throughout childhood and adolescence, fluid declines from age 30 or 40- crystallise continues to grow (differes in ages). Crystallised specific to experience.
318 of 375
Second view of intelligence- Gardener (1983)?
Theory of multiple intelligences- 8 different. Visual/Spatial – recognizes patterns easily; enjoys drawing/painting/visual arts.
319 of 375
Verbal-linguistic - able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading. Logical/mathematical - good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and logically
320 of 375
Body/Kinesthetic - good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity. Musical intelligence - good and thinking in patterns, rhythms, and sound
321 of 375
They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.
322 of 375
Interpersonal - understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them.
323 of 375
Intrapersonal - good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings, and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including daydreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.
324 of 375
Naturalistic - has been met with more resistance than his original seven ​intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing.
325 of 375
exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments.
326 of 375
Third view of intelligence- Robert Sternberg (1985)
Triarchic theory of intelligence. Analytic- problem solving, creative- apply past experience, practical- adapting to environment.
327 of 375
What is emotional intelligence?
The ability to understand your own emotions and those of people around you. Represents a set of competencies for identifying, processing and managing emotion.
328 of 375
What was the definition heavily influenced by?
Early work focused on describing, defining and assessing socially competent behaviour such as social intelligence (Thorndike, 1920).
329 of 375
What is the four branch model? (Mayer & Salovey 1997)
Both intelligence and emotion had equal weight in the model. We assign cognitive labels to emotion.
330 of 375
What are the four components of this?
Perceiving- expression of emotions, using- facilitating emotions, understanding- social side, how we understand emotions in ourselves and with others and managing- promoting growth in ourselves.
331 of 375
Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test?
Test to emotional intelligence based on the four branch model from the previous slide. They need the ability to identify emotion (first task- image and have to identify the emotion), and ability to use (facilitate emotion), what mood to use when task
332 of 375
They were also tested on the ability to understand emotion by finishing scenarios with an emotion and the ability to manage emotions by saying how effective something would be in a scenario. Overall score as well as a score for the different emotions
333 of 375
What is Goleman's model of emotional intelligence? (1995)
Personal- self-awareness and self-management, social- social awareness and relationship management. Self-awareness leads to social awareness or self management. Social awareness leads to relationship management. Self- management leads to RM.
334 of 375
What is self awareness?
Emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, self-confidence.
335 of 375
What is self-management?
Emotional self-control, transparency, adaptability, achievement, initiative,optimism.
336 of 375
What is social awareness?
Empathy, organisational awareness, service orientation.
337 of 375
What is relationship management?
Developing others, inspirational leadership, change catalyst, influence, conflict management, teamwork & collaboration.
338 of 375
Bar-on's model of emotional-social intelligence (1997;2005)?
Consider emotional intelligence as a mixture of traits, competences and abilities; intrapersonal, adaptability, interpersonal, stress-management, general mood.
339 of 375
What is intrapersonal?
Self-regard, emotional-self awareness, assertiveness/emotional self-expression, independence, self-actualisation.
340 of 375
What is adaptability and interpersonal?
Adaptability: Problem-solving, reality-testing, flexibility. Interpersonal: interpersonal relationship, social, responsibility, empathy.
341 of 375
What is stress-management and general mood?
Stress management: Stress tolerance and impulse control, General mood: happiness/well-being and optimism.
342 of 375
What is trait emotional intelligence?
Petrides and Furnham (2001; 2003) proposed a theoretical distinction between trait EI (‘emotional self-efficacy’) and ability EI (‘cognitive-emotional ability’).
343 of 375
Trait EI?
Emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions, self-report questionnaires.
344 of 375
Ability EI?
Emotion-related cognitive abilities, maximum performance tests.
345 of 375
Trait EI study on emotion recognition? Petrides and Furnham (2003)?
Study 1 hypothesis: high trait EI participants would perform better on emotion recognition task than low trait EI participants. Would see a picture of different emotions on the same individual.
346 of 375
Trait EI study on reactivity to mood induction? Same researcher as above.
Stimuli; disturbing clip and cheerful clip. Study 2 hypothesis: high trait EI participants would be more sensitive to mood induction procedures than low trait EI participants.
347 of 375
Trait emotional intelligence- helping behaviour? (Agnoli et al 2015)
During the experimental task you will be asked be to move the mouse pointer on the screen and click on the exact point where you will see appearing the picture of a child.
348 of 375
Based on your speed and accuracy you will have the opportunity to gain an amount of money by means of which you could save the life of 5 children.
349 of 375
In particular, you will be able to gain money to help each child only if you will respond with accuracy and in less than 500ms. You will be informed on your performance after each block of trials.
350 of 375
Helping behaviour conditions and results?
Conditions: positive vs negative feedback. Results: negative feedback induces a progressive increase of negative affective states, "drop in the bucket" effect, low trait EI participants progressively decreased their performance across blocks.
351 of 375
High trait EI participants were able to better manage the affective reactions than low trait EI participants.
352 of 375
Trait emotional intelligence- cognitive appraisal of stressful events.
Mikolajczak & Luminent (2008): importance of the appraisal of the situation, 2 neutral vs stressful and 2 high vs low trait EI, self-efficacy (belief in their capability).
353 of 375
Ability emotional intelligence- angry rumination?
EI and aggressive behaviour are negatively associated (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014) Angry rumination is negatively related to ability EI (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2016).
354 of 375
Angry rumination mediated the relationship between AEI and aggression.Angry rumination is perseverative thinking about a personally meaningful anger-inducing event and is a risk factor for aggression.
355 of 375
Who looks at the effects of age on ability emotional intelligence?
Cabello, Sorrel, Fernández-Pinto, Extremera, & Fernández-Berrocal (2016).
356 of 375
Gender difference in emotional intelligence?
Females tend to score high on the Neuroticism measure (e.g., Furnham & Buchanan, 2005) Emotional stability is positively linked to various dimensions of trait and ability-based EI constructs.
357 of 375
Females scored higher than males on all dimensions of the MSCEIT except for Managing Emotions. On the EQi, men scored higher on Intrapersonal Skills (McIntyre, 2010).
358 of 375
scores on one emotional intelligence test largely reflected emotional stability. Yet it is well established that women score higher on Neuroticism suggesting that whilst they maybe more sensitive to emotional cues in themselves and others.
359 of 375
They tend to be made more anxious and stressed by this.
360 of 375
Mandell and Perwani (2003) and gender differences?
Transformational leadership style of managers could be predicted from their emotional intelligence scores. BUT no difference in the relationship between transformational leadership style and emotional intelligence for male and female managers.
361 of 375
Mediating effects (Fernandez-Berrocal et al 2012)?
Results showed that the gender differences initially reported for EI are mediated completely by age These findings indicate the need for caution when concluding that gender affects EI.
362 of 375
Emotional intelligence and individuals with ASD?
Gokcen et al (2013) did a reading the mind in the eyes test and found those with EI performed lower in test scores than those without.
363 of 375
Emotional intelligence and decision making?
Yip and Côté (2013) examined how EI facilitates decision-making.
364 of 375
Stdy 1?
Group-testing: measure emotion-understanding ability Conditions: incidental-anxiety vs neutral Risk-taking measures.
365 of 375
Not difference in neutral condition really, but in other condition, those with lower emotional understanding did not choose the risky option as much as those with higher understanding.
366 of 375
Study 2?
Manipulated awareness of half of the participants in each emotion condition. See powerpoint for results.
367 of 375
Can we improve EI?
EI Intervention: 4 sessions of 2 and a half hours over four weeks, based on the four branch model, all positive changes remained significant 6 months after intervention, some aspects like emotional understanding was not improved. (Nelis et al 2009).
368 of 375
Improved EI is associated with significant improvement of life satisfaction and decrease in perceived and objective stress (Kotsou, Nelis, Grégoire, & Mikolajczak, 2011).
369 of 375
Dark side of EI?
Ali, Amorim, & Chamorro-Premuzic (2009) Empathy image using the self-assessment manikin (SAM).
370 of 375
Primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism positively correlated experience of positive affect from sad stimuli.
371 of 375
Secondary psychopathy and Machiavellianism positively associated with experience of negative affect from neutral.
372 of 375
There are three main theories of emotional intelligence: Salovey and Mayer’s four-branch model, Goleman’s model, and Bar-On’s model.
373 of 375
Two different emotional intelligence constructs can be differentiated on the basis of the method of measurement used to operationalise them: self-report, as in personality questionnaires, or maximum performance, as in IQ tests.
374 of 375
There has been irrational enthusiasm surrounding the practical utility of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence appears related (albeit weakly) to performance outcomes in a variety of applied settings.
375 of 375

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the self?


Includes social roles (e.g. gender) and characterstics (friendly).

Card 3


What is self-construal?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is self other overlap?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Social resources »