The exposition transforms the musical mood. The tempo has changed from Adagio to Allegro (slow to fast).
Haydn ended the intro on a dominant 7th chord (A7). Dominant seventh chords always point to their tonic partners. But this can be major or minor. Throughout the introduction Haydn has lead us to believe that the symphony will be in D minor - the A7 chord was reached by the Ic D minor chord - however after the silence we are led into the bright key of D major, and we immediately sense that we're now in the key of the symphony
First subject bars 17-32
Periodic Phrasing used:
- 16 bar theme that is clearly split into two matching 8 bar phrases, the first ending with an imperfect cadence, the second ending with a pefect cadence
- Within each 8 bar phrase there is a sense of two 4 bar phrases and even 2 bar phrases
Harmony is diatonic, conjunct melody. Played piano in mid register.
Haydn has no need to introduce the 1st subject more strongly than this, as the move from D minor to D major has made such a contrast. He has the full orchestra saved up for what happens next...
Open idea returns but now in F major. The 2 bars are the same, but with no horns, trumpets or timpani playing because they aren't tuned to F major, therefore creating a weaker sound than before.
Similar to bars 3-6, a quieter, more mysterious passage for strings, bassoon and flute (from bar 12). The double dotted rhythm and stepwise movement are still there from bar 3, however the suspense is heightened by:
- An increased use of chromaticism, which gives some sense of tonal uncertainty
- A rising sequence in bars 9-11
- The melodic motif occuring more frequently from bar 11
Bar 13 brings the music back to the home key of D minor, which is reached by a Ic - V7 - I perfect cadence onto the down beat of bar 14.
The opening idea returns back in D minor. Bar 14 is identical to bar 1. However in bar 15, instead of falling by a perfect 4th to the dominant A in ff, bar 15 falling by a 5th to the subdominant G in pp. This surprise is intensified when the octaves turn into an E flat major chord on the 4th beat of the bar.
This is a very distinctive chord in D minor, built on the flattened second degree of the scale - a harmonic colour known as the Neapolitan 6th chord.
This leads to a slow Ic -V imperfect cadence in bar 16, followed by silence. The plaintive solo oboe play high above the chordal texture.
The interupted cadence leads into a passage of greater energy with lively quavers in the first violins. The syncopated conjuct line that has been used as a counterpoint to the scalic minims (first heard in bars 21-22) is now played in the bass.
This leads to a tutti passage at bar 86 which is reminiscent of the 1st subject tutti at bar 32, with the same I-IVc-I progression in use in bars 86,87 and 88.
The orchestra then plays in an octave texture in bars 89-91, which articulates the arrival onto a dominant pedal on the downbeat of bar 92. This prefaces a weighty perfect cadence in A major at bars 98-99.
Second subject bars 65-80
Usually in sonata form the theme would change to mark the arrival of the dominant key. However Haydn uses the same theme, so it is a monothematic sonata form.
This approach makes bars 65-72 very similar to bar 17-24. The next phrase (bars 73-80) is like bars 25-32, but Haydn enriches the harmony with chromaticism and the texture with some imitative counterpoint.
Bar 76 there's an F sharp 7th chord (secondary dominant 7th of chord VI), which is expected to resolve onto Bm, but it resolves instead onto another secondary dominant senventh chord B7 in bar 77 (the dominant of the dominant)
Haydn ends this phrase with an interupted cadence instead of a strong perfect cadence like in the first subject.
These bars contrast with bars 1-2 and swiftly generates a sense of mystery and anticipation
- Dynamics are now piano (quiet)
- Reduced instrumentation - just the strings and 1 bassoon
- Texture is now homophonic
- There is now a limitted register of notes compared to the 4 octave spread beforehand
- Instruments now move by step instead of bold leaps
- Still has double dotted rhythm. When in ff it's assertive but in p it's restless and uneasy
- In bar 3 Fs are used to establish the key of D minor, instead of just using the tonic and dominant, which has a solemn effect.
- In bars 1-2 chords were in root position. Now they are inversions of the tonic and dominant chords, which are less stable and give mystery to the music
- Bars 5-6 have Cs instead of C sharps in the violin, B flats instead of As in the viola/bassoons - moved to the relative major F major.
Introduction bars 1-2
Haydn wants to create a sense of weight and grandeur to the piece, and to establish the key for the symphony.
- Whole orchestra is playing
- Dynamics are loud
- Tempo is slow
- Rhythm includes a double dotted pattern which gives a precise formality to the music
- Texture - everyone is playing in octaves which makes for a very clear effect
- Only D and A the tonic and dominant of the symphony are being used
- The opening bar has a upward leap of a perfect 5th immediately after the double dotted rhythm, which gives an assertive flavour to the music
- The 2nd bar is like a mirror image of the first but falling not rising to the dominant A (falling by a perfect 4th)
After 2 bars, there is little doubt that the key of the symphony is D
Bars 32 - 50
Still essentially built from pairs of 2 bar segments. For 8 bars this is built over the tonic note, the harmony alternates between chords I and IVc. This allows the timpani and brass to play their confident and celebratory tones. Harmony is diatonic, until bars 40-41 when a VI chord (Bm) is added. Haydn adds chromatic colour with A sharps in both melody and bass lines. The start of the tutti passage in bar 32 uses the same rhythm as the start of the 1st subject at bar 17. Rhythmic Diminuation used: the scalic minims of the opening material reappear as scalic crochets in bar 41-43. Then they are extended in the winds at bar 46 and simultaneously decorated in the violins.
- Sense of exuberance created by:
- f dynamic
- Fast harmonic rhythm - 2 chords per bar - in bars 32 and 34
- 1st appearance of semiquavers in the exposition at bar 33
- The fact that the semiquaver figure appears in alternate bars at first, but then in every bar
- the fall of the melodic contour to its lowest point at bar 44, so it can climb excitedly through the quaver passage of the next 6 bars
- use of staccato
- the change from a static bass on the tonic D for 8 bars to a more active line in the texture
Transition bars 50 - 64
- Plays a striking 4 bar phrase in high register in bar 50, made from material we've already heard
- Bar 50 & 51 like bar 19 & 20
- Bar 52 like bar 18
- Bar 53 like bar 21
- G sharp on the downbeat of bar 52, with an E7 chord, is moving the music away from D major towards its dominant A major
- A sharps, G naturals and a D sharp camoflage the intent for a few bars. But the E pedal note in the bass (the dominant of A) in bars 57 - 64 confirms the move to the dominant of A (as you would expect in sonata form)
- Haydn incorporates a moment of silence, just as there was a silence between the introduction and the 1st subject
Closing theme bars 99-123
Haydn decides to introduce new material late on in the 2nd subject. In bars 99-111, it forms a gentle flowing passage that begins over a soft tonic pedal played by the horns.
The falling triad in the flutes and violins are like the 1st subject tutti in bar 32, but starting a crochet earlier. The rhythm of a minim plus 2 crochets (from the start of the 1st subject) also reappears here, and is followed in bars 104, 106 and 110 by a rising triad.
At bar 112, the closing theme itself turns into a tuttipassage. The harmony is again I - IVc - I and the falling triad is now displaced to start a crochet later.
The development is part of the sonata form in which themes are transformed and key centres change rapidly as more distance keys are explored. This creates a strong sense of being in the middle of the movement.
Begins with a light string texture and p (like exposistion). Haydn engages some fluid chromatic harmony and avoids clear, tonality-defining cadences - clear we have reached development section. Also the melody becomes almost exclusively concerned with a 2 bar phrase, which is first heard in bars 19-20. It is heard in a variety of different of instruments and registers.
Bar 137, Haydn writes a tutti passage built on similar material, although with appearances of the repeated note figure largely confined to the bass. An entry high on the horns in bars 139-140 makes for an exciting moment. Also syncopation in the 1st violins, which is first heard in the accompaniment in bars 21-22, adds further excitement. 1st violins change B naturals into B sharps, which brings us to the remote key of C sharp minor in bar 145 (heard in its 1st inversion).
At bar 145 there is a sudden reduction in texture, just the violins and violas play for the next few bars. 1st violins play 2 bar phrases based on bars 104-105 (closing theme of exposistion). This passage starts in C sharp minor, then travels around the circle of 5ths in a descending sequence (take a look at the bassoon part).
After a variety of minor keys, Haydn marks the arrival of E major with an f tutti section. After 2 bars the G sharps are swapped for G naturals as we heads back into E minor at bar 157 for an extended passage in this key.
At bar 159, a passage of driving rhythmic momentum in which the repeated note figure (from the 1st subject) comes thick and fast, is one of the most exciting passages in the development. At the start, the figure is 2 bars long and ends one note lower than it started. Shortened versions of the figure are then heard by the flutes, oboes and 1st violins in bars 163 - 165; here a sense of urgency gathers momentum.
Bars 208-241 (part 1)
At bar 208 we hear the same tutti passage from bar 32. Played in f, this completes the resolution of the loud dominant 7th at the end of the development. The passage remains the same (apart from a few changes in orchestration) up until bar 221. At this point Hadyn must make sure that the music doesnt modulate to the dominant again (recapitulation always in tonic key). He therefore twists through a pasage of harmony based on the circle of 5ths, which is sustained in the winds and decorated and energised by the strings.
The flutes and oboes play long notes that are in harmony for one chord then becoming a suspended 7th on the next chord, beofre rsolving down by step. Also the harmonic rhythm increase, with 2 chors per bar from bar 224.
Bars 208-241 (part 2)
At bar 226, 2 bars of ascending scales are reminiscent of the end of the development. Here they are diatonic, wheres in the development they were largely chromatic. They lead to a full tutti passage that returns to the version of the repeated not figure much used in the development, but there the context was tonally unstable and often minor with various chromatic inflections; here the figure makes a gloriuos statement witih an assured, diatonic context of D major. Quaver motion, which was in 1st violins in development, is now given to the bass to maintain energy, while the remainder of the texture is purely homophonic.
There is a sense of reaching a culminanting point in the recapitulation, but it is too early to finish as we have not reached the 2nd subject. Nonetheless, Haydn has given himself a problem. In the majority of sonata forms there is at this point a 2nd theme that the listener is still waiting to hear in the tonic key for the first time (it would originally be heard in the dominant key). But having chosen the monothematic route, Haydn doesnt have this option. One can almost hear him hesistating over whether his listeners need to hear the same tune yet again, as the music fragments from bar 234 with increasing amounts of silence until we reach 2 whole bars (bars 242-243) that are totally empty.
2nd subject: bars 244-266
These rests aren't hesitation however, they are a silence to articulate the midpoint of the recapitulation. The music starts up again in a slightly tentative fashion with repeated staccato crochets. Then at bar 247 the 2nd subject appears in the oboe. Haydn now uses the head motif (opening 4 notes of 1st subject) in concentrated fahion:
- Bar 247 in 3rds in the oboes. Bar 248 in 3rds in 1st and 2nd violins. Bar 249 in 3rd back in oboes. Bar 250 in 6ths between violins, with 1st flute involved too. Bar 251 in 3rd between 2nd violins and violas, with 1st bassoon involved too. Bar 254 in unison on bassoon and violas. Bar 255 in bass on basses and cellos.
Haydn has judged it perfectly: surprisingly he has avoided the use of the head motif throughout the development, prefering to concentrate on the repeated note figure. As a result, this head motif is the one element of the them that the listener has not yet heard very often, and this concentrated use of it gives the recapitulated 2nd subject a discrete identity.
At bar 257 Haydn resumes a more orthoox recapitulation by returning to the passage at bar 80 which was in the dominant A major but is now in the onic. Haydn does, however, abbreviate the passage; the end of the movement is in sight.
Closing theme: bars 266-277
The return of the closing theme (first heard at bar 99) heralds the end of the movement. It is essentially the same as before, though ith some changes of scoring to suit the change of key (d major not A major), and considerabley shortened.
Coda: bars 277-294
The coda is a brief, clear passage that rounds of the movement in a bright and breezy fashion. At bar 277, there are 2 statements of the repeated note figure under running 1st violin quavers. The rest of the coda is a high spirited celebration of D major with scales, simple texures and a final fanfare flourish of the repated note figure, using notes of the tonic arpegio from bar 290.
Bars 170 - 179
In bars 170 - 174, Haydn uses some advanced Classical style harmony to intensify the music even further. Bars 170 - 171 use a 1st inversion Em chord, then in bars 172 - 173 Haydn swaps the E natural for an E sharp, which produces the interval of an augmented 6th above the G in the bass. The augmented 6th chord has a strong need to resolve, and it does so with the G descending and the E sharp ascending, both by a semitone onto an F sharp.
Since the development section, we haven't heard from timpanist, because they can only play D & A. However this augmented 6th chord on G comprised of 4 notes - G B D and E sharp - which enables Haydn to highlight the exciting harmony with a D from the timpani.
This progression moves the key away from Em. The resolution onto F sharp makes it sound like the new dominant, which Haydn emphasises by writing 5 bars of F sharp as a pedal note in the cellos and basses. Eventually on the downbeat of bar 179, this delivers the music into the key of Bm.
B minor is the relative minor to D major, so return to the home key cannot be far away. In bars 179-182, we hear 2 more statements of the repeated note figure, now involving trumpets and horns (another sign that we are returning to home key). The 1st violins have agitated quavers over the top.
Bar 183-184 are built over a rising scale in the bass (includes some chromatic steps), landing on a long A at bar 185. This is sustained and emphasised dominant pedal is a sure sign that we are returning to D major and the recapitulation. Hadyn heightens the energy further by responding to the bass scale with an ascending chromatic scale in the flute and 1st violins, and by emphasising the pedal note with the timpani and trumpets.
In the expostition, both the 1st and 2nd subjects were prefaced with silence - Haydn does the same here, and there is a pregnant pause before D major returns in bar 193.
Recapitulation - 1st subject bars 193-208
After the climatic end to the development section, the return of the 1st subject is understated, bu the opening 8 bar phrase is a direct reminder of how the exposition started: p and on strings in mid regsiter.
For the next 8 bar phrase (bars 201-208) Haydnhas a more creative approach. Not only does he give the phrase to the flute and oboes instead of the strings (as the exposition has done), but the melodic line is given to the 2nd oboe at the bottom of the 3 part texture.