Fanfare idea (bars 1-2 D minor, 7-8 F major, 14-15 D minor) due to
- Full orchestra playing in octaves
- use of double dotted rhythm on repreated notes
- leap of 5th from tonic to dominant
- timpani rolls
Bar 2 answers bar 1 by falling from tonic to dominant instead of rising.
Bars 7-8 no brass of timpani (cannot play) which helps make D more important than F as tonic.
Bars 14-15 second bar falls to subdominant. Change highlighted by reduced dynamic (pp) and neapolitan chord 8th bar 4th beat.
Melodically: rises by assertive leap of a 5th, which is answered by a falling 4th complimenting the openng leap whilst maintaining the tonic to dominant identity.
Rhythmically: slow adagio tempo and sense of formailty from 4/4 metre. Double dotted rhythm most distinctive.
Texture: always presented in octave texture
Instumentation: bars 1-2 orchestral tutti, 7-8 no Brass or Timpani, 14-15 2nd bar strings alone-aid pp effect
Secondary idea (between appearences of fanfare figure) is mysterious due to
- Quiet dynamic +reduced scoring
- confimation of minor tonality after ambiguous open 5th of bars 1-2.
- double dotted pattern moving conjunctly not disjunctly upwards.
- frequent use of 1st inversion chords
- use of chromatic colour
Melodically: falls by step and uses a nervous staccato reiteration of the final note of the bar. (there is also a chromatic countermelody in 1st violins bar 12)
Rhythmically: double dotted rhythm echoed in quieter passages. Some instruments enter after a quaver rest (eg 1st violin bar 3),the displacement causing unease.
Texture: homophnic texture with an element of dialogue between the 2nd violins in the 1st half of the bar and the 1st violins in the 2nd half. (bar 12 main melody passes into bass line-cellos- with a countermelody in the violins)
Instrumentation: bars 3-6 mainly played by strings, with the violas doubled by the bassoon to add colour and sonority. Bars 9-13 has same scoring till bar 12 where the flute enters adding warmth. The solo oboe line at bar 16 creates a plaintive effect.
Structually: 1st half of the exposition section (bars 17-50). Consists of 16 bar theme with balanced phrasing initially 8 bars long. These phrases are separated into 4 bar sections in what is called periodic phrasing.
Melodically: sounds very classical, Very diatonic and conjunct. There are lots of scalic patterns and scalic minims in the 3rd 2 bar segment of each phrase. Haydn puts this against a syncopated line in the 2nd violins (reoccuring). It is very inoffensive with no extremes.becomes more exuberant at 33 due to
- f dynamic
- tutti scoring
- fast harmonic rhythm
- introduction of semiquaves (bar 34)
- sequences-melody gets lower (lowest point bar 45)
- staccato rhythms
- active bass line
Texture: No tutti scoring until 33. Brass and Timpani enter here. The tutti scoring then contributes to the exuberance.
Instrumentation: No woodwind until bar 33. Brass playing long notes-cme in and out.
Transition Section: Links 1st subject to 2nd and modulates to dominant. (bars 51-65)
- Bar 50- the top of a rising sequence is reached.
- Haydn recycles material, inverting it from the 1st subject, however he does it so that it sounds completely different. e.g 4 quaver 2 crotchet paterns.
- Starts moving towards Dominant of D (i.e A), lots of Es are introduced (dominant of A)- secondary dominant pedal?
- Throws listener off scent with A#s and D#s as well as G naturals (after G#s had previously been introduced) but by bar 57 it is clear we are moving to A.
- Bar 65 indicates new section as last 3 beats are rests- ear break.
Structurally: Usually there would be a new theme to mark the arrival of the dominant but the same theme is used. This is called monothematic sonata form. Near the end of the second subject Haydn introduces new closing themes.
Melodically: no new theme. Bars 66-73 are like 18-25 and bars 74-81 are like 26-33 but phrases are enriched with chromatcisms. After 81 there is a passage with more energy with lively quavers. A tutti passage in bar 87 reflects ideas from bar 33. The closing themes from 100-112 consist of a gentle flowing theme.
Texture: The similar phrases are also enriched with counterpoint in the texture. The lively quavers in the 2nd half of the exposition are juxtaposed against a syncopated, conjunct line. This would suggest a polyphonic rhythm. In bar 87 there is a tutti passage. Tutti sections are used throughout.
Instrumentation: Up to bar 81 there is no brass and the woodwind share the tune with the 1st violins.The more lively passage from bar 81 has quavers played on 1st violin. The syncopated line that this is juxtaposed against is played in the bass. Int the gentle closing theme a falling triad is played in the flutes and violins like in the tutti section in the 1st subject. In 113-116 the 1st violin part reused immediately in the woodwind.
Structurally: Original themes transformed and distant keys are explored. Very central feel. Two bar phrases are used with 4 crotchets and 2 minims. The 1st violin continues to play 2 bar phrases reusing material.
Melodically: Sounds contrasting due to a quiet dynamic and thinner texture. The two bar theme becomes the focus- it is recycled from the second segment of the 1st theme (bars 20-21). As the sction progresses it becomes more excited sounding louder and reusing ideas of syncopation. Material is reused at 145 including the minim, 2 crotchet pattern. The melody works round a backwards cycle of 5ths. From 160 Haydn releases one of his most powerful and exciting sections using a repeated note pattern from the 1st subject. At 173 lots of D in the melody allows the timps to come in.
Texture: Sounds different due to the thinner texture with only the strings playing. At 138 there is a loud tutti section helping the music to build up. At 145 there is a sudden reduction in texture. At 155 we reach E major with a tutti section. The powerful section from 160 uses a contrapuntal texture.
Instrumentation: Only the strings play at the beginning. The 2 bar theme is heard in a variety of registers and instruments. The high entry of the horns (140-141) and the syncopation in the 1st violins create excitement. The B-B# in the run up to 145 in the violin part start moving the music to a more remote key-C# minor. The backwards cycle of 5ths starts in the bassoon part and is passed around in a descending sequence. The repeated note pattern from the 1st subject reused at 160 is mimicked by the flutes and oboes in 164-166. We are yet to hear the timps but at 173 there is an Augmented 6th chord allowing the them to play.
The Development continued:
Melodically: We are in F# Major and the major key makes it sound like we have arrived somewhere new. In bars 184-185 there is a rising scale in the bass which lands on A in 186. This becomes an A pedal. An increasing amount of chromatics add tension. Then there is a pause before D major returns at 194. This is long and unexpected.
Instrumentation: There is an F# pedal in the cellos and basses. As the section works its way back towards the home key more instruments that weren't able to play before such as the trumpet come back in. There is a rising scale in the bass which landing on A leads to an A pedal. Chromatic risings in the flutes and violins make us feel like the piece is building. The timps and trumpets carry the A pedal.
Structurally: Recaps the 1st and 2nd subject. Starts with two opening 8 bar phrases. Unlike the exposition there is no modulation to the dominant and therefore no transition section is needed.
Melodically: There is a pause before the first theme is played in quite an understated manner. Other than a few changes in orchestration the passage remains mainly the same as the exposition until 222. At 227 there are two bars of ascending scales- this is similar to the development secion except this time it is diatonic not chromatic. The repeated rhythmic motif is in its original form- there are no differences in key or inversion.
Texture: The melodic line is given to the second oboe in the second 8 bar phrase and this acs as the bottom of a three part texture. In bars 209-242 we see the same tutti passage as the exposition section (bar 33). The ascending scale at bar 227 leads to a tutti passage. The energetic quavers from the development section add to the texture at 231 and contrast to the homophonic texture in other parts.
Instrumentation: The opening 8 bar phrase is mid register. The second 8 bar phrase is played by the woodwind and the flutes and oboes take the main melody, in fact, the melodic line is given to the second oboe. The flutes and oboes are later used harmonically as the following a sequence of creating suspended 7ths and then resolving.
Structurally: The structure does not feel balanced so the second subject must be recapitulated. Increased fragmented silences from 235 suggest we have come to the middle of the recap.
Melodically: There is a problem as Haydn used the same melody for the second subject but in the dominant, here he cannot do that so instead he starts adding rests from 235. Haydn has used this throughout the movement so it is not a compete surprise. After this the melody (second subject) comes back at 248 but it is not as confident. It is then played on the flute and 1st violins at 251 and after this it is passed round various pairs of instruments. Repeating this four note phrase is a risk but as it was not used at all during the development it works. At 258 the section becomes more orthodox by recapitulating an abreviated version of bar 80 from the first subject of the exposition. We know we are near the end as Haydn starts to recapitulate the closing themes.
Texture: When the melody comes back in less confidently it is played with a thinner texture. Other than that it is relatively similar to the exposition section.
Instrumentation: Pizzicato strings contribute to the less confident melody. At 251 the melody is played in the flutes and first violins. The bassoon and viola play in unison at 225 and at 256 the melody is played on the basses and cellos.
- Starts at 278.
- High spirited.
- In D major with major scales so it sounds relatively positive.
- It uses simple textures.
- It culminates in a fanfare flourish (292) which is similar to the end of the exposition section.