Haydn Symphony in D minor, 'Lamentatione': Movement I

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  • Haydn Symphony No.26 in D minor, 'Lamentatione' Movement I
    • From 'Sturm and Drang' movement
      • Begins in a minor key
      • Diminshed 7th chords
      • Rhythmic tension - syncopated rhythms with on-beat rhythms
    • Performance forces & handling
      • Strings
        • Some double stopping in violins
        • All arco
      • Oboes
        • Mostly double violins in unison or octaves
        • Usually simplified violin parts
      • Bassoon
        • Plays when oboes play
        • Doubles string bass line
      • Horns
        • Lacked valves - restricted note playing
    • Dynamics
      • Terraced dynamics
      • Piano can create echo effect
    • Texture
      • Number of parts
        • Doubling - number of instrumental lines exceeds number of parts
        • Start - 2 part texture
          • Elsewhere - 3 or 4 part texture
      • Type of texture
        • Mostly melody-dominated homophony
        • Bars 9-12 - homorhythmic
        • Start - 2 part texture - contrapuntal
    • Structure
      • Sonata form
        • Exposition
          • Tonic key (D min)
            • 1st subject (bars 1-16)
          • Relative major (F maj)
            • 2nd subject (bars 17-44)
        • Development
          • Based on 1st subject with
            • elements of the 2nd
        • Recapitulation
          • Mostly a repeat of the exposition
            • but 2nd subject is in relative tonic
              • major (d maj)
    • Tonality
      • Uses maj and min scales - dependant on functional harmony
      • Change from D min to F maj in exposition - conventional
      • Development uses F min (from exposition), G min (subdominant min) and A min (dominant min)
      • Recapitulation uses D maj (tonic maj) for repeat of 2nd subject
    • Harmony
      • Functional
      • I and V(7) - most important
      • Circle of 5th (bar 57-65) - just after start of development
      • Some diminished 7th chords
      • Suspensions - create harmonic tension
        • Double suspension - end of 2nd subject
        • Triple suspension - in the middle of 2nd subject
    • Melody
      • 1st subject - disjunct
      • 2nd subject - more conjuct (largest leap - perfect 5th)

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