The structure of the Third movement
- Minuet and trio form.
- Minuet is a moderately fast dance in triple time .
- The trio is a contrasting style but structurally is another mini minuet. It was originally written for three instruments rather than full orchestra.
- At the end of the trio there is a minueto section which is from the start of the piece to the fine. Repeats are not observed this time. This creates rounded binary form.
- The minuet and trio are also individually in rounded binary form.
- The minuet is self contained, starting and ending in the home key, usually modulating to the dominant or relative major/minor.
- The B section modulates more widely creating tonal contrast but it also returns to the home key.
- The sections depend on each other for completion.
Structurally: Starts with an 8 bar phrase played twice, the first time forte, the second time piano. Rhythmic and melodic similarities demonstrate links between the movements. At the end of this section Haydn breaks some of the rules by not modulating. This is because the A section is not repeated this creates a different structure which means original rules cannot be obeyed.
Melodically: The melody of the repeated 8 bar phrase has two 4 bar sub phrases. The 7th bar has huge trill similar to bar 91 of the the first movement. The opening anacrucis is a rising triad which is reminiscent of many similar patterns in the first movement. The melody has the feel of a grand dance. The melody is mainly played by the flutes, 1st oboe and 1st violins with the clarinets and trumpets supporting this with sustained parts.
Texture: The second 8 bar phrase is more lightly scored to create contrast. The texture is thickened by the 2nd Oboe and 2nd violins playing the melody a third down and the violas play an octave lower.
Instrumentation: The second 8 bar phrase is lightly scored with only 2 of the 8 woodwind parts playing and no trumpets or timpani. The largely diatonic harmony does , however, allow the timpani to play more. The main melody is played by the flutes, 1st oboe and 1st violins with the clarinets and trumpets supporting this with sustained parts.
Structurally: We stay in the same key in this section against usual binary form. The opening theme of the entire minuet is played again at the end of this with a little ornamentation and variation creating rounded binary form. However this does not end the minuet and two bars of complete rest follow a large unresolved trill. There is a Da Capo demonstrating that this is the end of the whole movement.
Melodically: Near the end of the minuet after the opening theme has been played again there is a long trill followed by a high note which doesn't resolve and then there are two bars of complete rest causing confusion. Another trill follows this and leads to possibly the grandest par of the whole movement.
Texture: When the original theme is played again it is by the whole orchestra.
Instrumentation: Whole orchestra plays opening theme followed swiftly by trills and lack of insruments in the silence.
Structurally: This must provide a contrast to the minuet. The trio has two 6 bar phrases contrasting with the two 8 bar phrases of the minuet.
Melodically: Haydn eases into the change of key with 2 bars 1 beat of unaccompanied melody (a melodic gesture). The music is more graceful than the minuet which is partly because the key id 4 degrees flatter and long melodic lines of flowing quavers which give the down beat less gravity. There are also no motifs from the minuet and the melody is much more conjunct.
Texture: The trio starts with unaccompanied tune. A lighter texture contributes to the gracefulness of the minuet.
Instrumentation: The brass and timpani can't play due to the key change which contributes to the more graceful feel. Thdelicate pizzicato on the strings also adds to this feel.
Meodically: The melody is very legato. It starts with an anacrusis leap of a thrid which relates to the rising triads of the minuet but it is left unfinished and goes straight into the melody. It is very scalic and conjunct. The quaver melody lasts for a long time and is passed around different instruments.
Instrumentation: The melody is originally carried by the 1st violins and doubled first by the 1st oboe and later by the bassoon. The long quaver melody is passed around different instruments.
Structurally: There is another two 8 bar phrases with constant moving quavers. We hear the original melodic material again which creates rounded binary form. There is no Coda as we are not in Sonata form. A traditional Da Capo would feel weird as the two sections are in unrelated keys. Instead there is a linking passage of 10 bars.
Melodically: The rising third pattern that we have previously heard occurs again but only the first two notes of the triad are played. Similarly to the A section, constant moving quavers are used and they counterbalance the main melody and become a countermelody. The original melodic material comes back at the end. At 84 there is a slight change with a rising sequence which builds to silence tricking the listener into thinking it is the end. A linking passage at the end uses a rising chromatic scale.
Texture: Quavers counterbalance the main melody creating a polyphonic texture. The texture is fairly thin however.
Instrumentation: The countermelody is played by the flutes and oboes. There is no bass line which leads to a thinner texture. In the added ten bar section the rising chromatic scale is played by the 1st violin and doubled by the oboe.