Global Development Theme 7 - Education, Employment & Health

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Education and Development 1

  • Teaching children and adults how to read and write means that they can apply to a wider range of jobs
  • Increasing education skills means the country will be more competitive globally
  • School can educate the population on other areas of development, such as health and employment
  • Free food and vaccinations can be administered in schools, as well as providing a safe, sheltered area for children
  • Children can engage in politics which can make the country more democractic                                                                  


  • Not enough money is spent on primary education
  • Widely dispersed populations in developing countries means children have trouble getting to school
  • Child labour prevents many children from attending school
  • Poor levels of nutrition reduce children's capacity to learn effectively
  • Parents lack money to send their children to school or for resources
  • Patriarchal values prevents girls from attending school 
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Education and Development 2


  • Believe that education is crucial for development
  • They favour Western styles of education and curriculum as it spreads modern, western values such as meritocracy
  • Higher education is essential for training future leaders who can employ others to work for them                                                      

Case study: In the phillipenes...


  • Sees education as a form of cultural imperialism, imposing western values
  • Education was one of the main ways that colonial powers exercised control during colonialism - they trained a small elite into colonial values and rewarded them with jobs                                                                                                    

Case study: In Zimbabwe...

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Education and Development 3


  • Some countries don't want Western styles of education
  • Education needs to be culturally relevant to the people receiving it - teach people how to utilise their resources and technology effectively                                                                                            

Case study: Keeping Africa Small                                                                                                                                                      


  • Education is heavily gendered
  • Patriarchal values in developing countries prevent girls and women from having an education, as women are seen as the 'child bearers' therefore they do not need an education 
  • Education needs to be radical and focused on female empowerment                                                                            

Case study: Malala Yousafzai

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Health and Development 1

  • Helps to tell how underdeveloped a country is - causes of death are strongly related to development: in developing countries, the main cause of death is infectious diseases and birth and maternity deaths 
  • The developed world suffers from 'diseases of affluence' and curable diseases due to medical advancements and vaccinations, which developing countries do not have 
  • Improving health comes by improving education. nutrition and diet and changes in reproduction                                                                                 


1. Life expectancy (UK: 81.5 years, Congo: 49 years)
2. Child mortality (UK: 5/1000 births, Developing world: 160/1000 births)
3. Maternal health (UK: 2% deaths, Africa: 64% deaths)
4. Disease (AIDs, HIV etc.)     

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Health and Development 2


  • Supports biomedical intervention - mass immunisation/vaccination programmes etc. 
  • Expects the developing world to follow the footsteps of the west in improving health
  • Traditional values of relying on witch doctors and pastors need to be stopped
  • Many developing countries are now facing the 'epidemiologic transition' - before medical achievements in the developed world, the main cuases of death were infectious diseases whereas now it's diseases of affluence.
  • Developing countries should draw on aid and expertise of the developing world and drop traditional medical practices                                                                                                                                                


  • The West has caused most of the health problems in the developing world (e.g. Ebola)
  • There is no reason to assume that developing countries can follow in the path of the west
  • Colonialism changed health for the worse in developing countries and neocolonialism continues this trend 
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Health and Development 3


  • Lack of clean water
  • Poor sanitation
  • Malnutrition 
  • Underdeveloped public health services
  • War, conflict and poverty                                                                                                                                               


  • Economic growth
  • Biomedical intervention
  • Improving water and sanitation 
  • Improving diets
  • Overcoming patriarchy
  • Ending corruption and conflict
  • Providing cheaper remedies 
  • Controlling corportations' health and saftey regulations 
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Employment and Development 1

  • Increase the country's GDP/GNP
  • More wealth per person leads to a consumer culture
  • Leads to a better standard of living                                                                                                                                       


  • Lack of regulation of TNCs leads to exploitation of workers
  • Unfair trading rules/dumping means the work of farmers in developing counries is worthless
  • Child labour is still a problem
  • There is an 'informal economy' - illegal work such as the black market
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Employment and Development 2


  • Agree that mass employment leads to development (stage 4 of Rostow's stages to development: Drive to maturity)
  • However Modernisation Theory argues that government aid will help countries reach this stage whereas Neo-Liberalists argue that TNC investment will                                                                                                  


  • TNCs have too much power for trade to lead to development
  • Countries compete in a 'race to the bottom' whereby they offer fewer workers rights to attract exploitative TNCs
  • Workers need to organise nationally and internationally to protect their rights and equal pay
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Employment and Development 3


  • 'Paid' employment is not necessarily the best route to development
  • Jobs should offer trade unions, fair pay and fair treatment of workers                                                                


  • Patriarchal values dominate employment
  • In some cultures, women are forbidden to leave the home so they're reliant on their husbands or fathers
  • If women do work, it is for less money than men, or they're forced into sweatshop labour
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