Aspects of development: employment, education, health, population and gender

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  • Created on: 30-04-18 17:34
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  • Aspects of development: employment, education, health, population and gender
    • The changing nature of employment as a result of development
      • Peet and Hartwick
        • Economic activity has become globalised
          • There now exists a global division of labour
      • Employment and women
        • Martell
          • Women are increasingly a resource for global capitalism because millions of women have been incorporated into the production process
      • Child labour
        • Affects 1 in 8 children
      • The impact of urbanisation on employment
        • Half the total population in developing countries are expected to live in cities by 2020
      • Employment and poverty
        • Jobs in the developing world are vulnerable to global economic downturns
      • Migration of skilled labour to the developed world
        • Dodani and Laporte
          • a 'brain drain' is taking place as skilled workers from the developing world emigrate to the developed world
    • The role of education in development
      • Murthi et al
        • The effect of female literacy on lowering child mortality is extraordinarily large
      • Modernisation theory and education
        • Hoselitz
          • The introduction of meritocratic education systems would speed up the spread of western values
        • Sen
          • Education is the key that unlocked the economic success of the Asian tiger economies
      • The state of global education
        • Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women, this has been static since 1990
      • Dependency theory
        • Poverty may blind parents to the value of education
        • Freire
          • Imposing Western-style education in developing countries is inappropriate
        • McCloskey
          • 'Development education' should focus on educating people in the developed world so that they understand the underlying causes of global inequality
    • Health-care systems and health and illness in developing countries
      • The nature of health and illness in developing countries
        • 30,000 children a day die of preventable diseases
      • Modernisation theory and health
        • Developed countries experienced diseases of poverty in the early years of industrialisation, but as they experienced economic growth, the standard of living improved
          • Developing societies will soon experience this
      • Dependency theory
        • Peet and Hardwick
          • The 'structural adjustments' required of developing countries by the World Bank ended up killing millions of children
      • Health-care systems
        • Many traditional cultures tend to have a holistic approach to health
    • Demographic change: trends, causes and significance for development
      • World Population Growth
        • World population increases by about 83 million people annually
      • Neo-Malthusian modernisation theory
        • Thomas Malthus
          • Populations increase in size at a much fasster rate than their ability to feed themselves
        • Peter Ehrlich
          • The high birth rates in the developing world has led to a population explosion that has put too much strain on their limited resources of food and energy
        • Evaluation
          • Cohen and Kennedy
            • Predictions of population explosions are usually based on present trends
          • Carnell
            • Ehrlich has expected food production to decrease, but instead it has increased faster than population growth due to technology
      • Solutions to overpopulation
        • Family Planning
        • Western aid
        • The education of women
      • Dependency theory
        • Adamson
          • Neo-Malthusians misunderstand the relationship between poverty and population
    • The significance of gender in relation to  development
      • Women in developing countries
        • Steinem
          • Women in developing countries make up a 'fifth world'
      • Explanations for the position of women in the developing world
        • Modernisation theory
          • Van der Gaag
            • In any countries today, the birth of a boy is still more celebrated than the birth of a girl
      • Feminist perspectives
        • Scott
          • Modernisation theory is malestream because it is underpinned bicultural inequality
        • Boserup
          • Traditionally, women were the main food producers in the majority of African societies but the new agricultural technologies are focused on training men to use them
        • Pearson
          • Gender has been incorporated into the indices of development used by multilateral aid agencies
        • Hunt
          • Postmodernists have drawn attention to how the category of women has been constructed, and how specific female groups in the developing world have been perceived by Western feminists

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