Global development

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Globalization
improving lives of people around the world and making it more global
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Causes of globalization
decrease in travel costs makes it easier for goods to be transported. many barriers of international trade have been removed. economic developments are central to globalization.
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evidence for economic globalization
1) increase in financial and money markets that have become globalized-when financial problems affect all over the world for example the credit crunch in 2008. 2) strength of transnational corporations- companies such as Mcdonalds and Nike.
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Trasnational Corporations
they manufacture goods in a country and sell them in many other countries across the globe
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more evidence for economic globalization
3) success of TNCS leads to social change which Ritzer described as Mcdonaldization, 4) growth of capitalism -china and vietnam welcomed capitalist businesses into a communist country.
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Mcdonaldization
1)efficiency - how fast the customer is served determined by a series of steps. 2) calculability - quantity over quality as people will choose the big mac for it's size not taste. 3) predictability- the way the menus look
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control (Mcdonaldization)
how the customer is served, how much the meal costs etc.
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evidence for political globalization
liberal democracies, free and fair elections through international monitors that prevent vote rigging, bribery. this happens as a result of economic globalization. having free eletions is a condition of recieving aid.
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evidence for political globalization
global decision making- international help from organisations United Nations, political "actors" such as Greenpeace and Red Cross deal with political issues. Nation states have problems that are too big to deal with like pollution and terrorism.
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evidence for cultural globalization
world sport e.g. olympics or commonwealth games. world tourism, communications and information systems. global patterns of consumerism. cosmopolitan lifestyles. attention is focused on lifestyles of America like Mcdonaldization and Coca cola
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McLuhan
increase in internet led to a global village. communicating with people across the globe as easy as speaking over the garden fence
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3 positive stances of globalizations
On an economic level - Neoliberal policies have created opportunity to generate wealth. TNCS can help to spread empolyment. Thomas Friedman found that if countries have economic interests in one another they will politically help resolve problems.
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Political level
globalization increases political forums through which an international agreement can be built, which makes the world a better place.
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cultural level
increase freedom of choice in the context of creating diversity and pluralism.
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effects of globalization-
economic :supply chains become more diffuse. components of a product can be manufactured in other countries.political- elavation of power from nation states to transnational corporations, reshaped deicision making. culturally-has increased diversity
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cultural effects
increased diversity, can encounter entertainment accross the globe such as food, clothing and religious beliefs.
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negative stances of globalization
on a economic level-Neoliberalists impose free market policies on majority world. majority world controls global trade WTO . on a political level- state sovereignity reduced. according to Chromsky there is a polarisation of power.
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on a cultural level (negative stance)
Soros- Neoliberalism globalisation creates uncontrolled capitalism.
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Williamson (1990)
critical of globalisation because it is a term used by the rich world and refers to it as the washington consensus.
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is globalization new?
David Held (1999) proposes there are three main perspectives on the nature of globalisation. globalizers- globalization is a new era of history never before have goods, services flown across the globe.
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sceptics
dubious about globalization exists as a new phase
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transformationalists
accepts middle ground between sceptics and globalists. like globalisers they agree that exchange and global integration is without historical precedent. like sceptics believe that nation states will decline. they see the world to be in a global flux
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Neoliberals
global spread of capitalism. Free market is embraced by China to develop but Africa is outside of the global market.
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Radicals
global spread of capitalism but is a negative phenomena because cultural globalization is cultural imperialism as western values are favoured.
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Transformationalist
Disagrees with radicals and neoliberals on terms : -reproduces inequalities transforms heirachies of the first and third world. reverse cultural flows so developing world can influence the west culture. different cultures create new hybrids of people
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the theory impasse
Adding feeling to the old theories. Traditional theories failed to explain how the world was changing. Booth developed the theory impasse.
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reasons for the impasse
1) environmentalism- industrialisation causes environmental damage. 2) postmodernism- ideas of socials sciences undermined meta-narratives like depdency but the idea of development also questioned. Also theories carried assumptions of western values
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modernisation theory and dependency theory
failed to explain how world was changing. didnt explain different situations of developing countries which were evident.
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reason 3 : failure of development
1960 and 1970s rapid economic growth. 1980s "lost decade" modernisation theorists couldnt explain failure to take off. dependency couldnt. explain differences in situations of developing countries that were evident rapid growth of tigers.
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reason 4- globalization
a phenomena but not accepted by everyone.
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People centred approach-
focuses on the people and communities to develop and improve their lifestyles. Ghandi-"moral economics" -people take what they need.
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people centred approach
known as "grassroots" or "bottom up approach" run by NGOS small scale projects lesser role for governments,
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people centred approach
rejects western model of development , has its roots with ghandi who proposed self-reliant communities. economic sustainability - doesnt rely on aid. social sustainability - inclusive of all the community and doesnt marginalise any groups.
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environmental sustainability
natural resources.
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Sustainable development
- development meeting the needs of the present without comprimising the ability to future generations to meet their needs.-Brudtland Report 1987
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Counterindustrial movements
western model is desirable.question whether majority world can follow this path and is flawed by theorists.
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Environmentalism-
amounts of Industrialisation causes environmental damage with three themes; 1) degradation of toxins emitted into the atmosphere, land and water. 2) loss of biodiersity- habitats eroded - to make way for infrastructure.
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3) overuse of resources-
requires large amounts of raw materials that are wasted.
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Neopopulism
social cost of industrialisation Ernst Schumacher (1973) - range of human costs : loss of employment -mechanisation requires fewer people to perform same amount of labour.
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2) loss of existing artisans
artisans unable to compete with more competitive cost-effective techniques
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3) dependency
dependency on rich nations for expertise and materials to maintain technology.
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4) destruction of communities.
industrialisation causes urbanisation, creates crime and mental illness.
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advantage of counterindustrial movements
emphasis on development never being about economic terms. long term focus. concept of sustainability
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disadvantages of counterindustrial movements
limited impact. places emphasis on the poor world and environmental damage
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majority world and minority world
amajority world - the underdeveloped. minority world- the developed and privileged disadvantages: avoids geographical references and overpoliticised language
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third and first world
first world-capitalist bloc, second world-communist bloc, third world-didnt align itself in the cold war. Advantage : non-economic differences taken int account Disadvantages : oversimplified. ethnocentric- the first world is favoured.
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North-south divide
north-most economically developed countries. south- least economically developed countries. disadvantages - not geographically accurate as australia is located in the south but belongs in the north
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other concepts
most economically developed countries-UK, britain and japan. least economically developed countries-niger and democratic republic of congo. former communist countries-Russia and other eastern european countries. newly industrialised countries - brazi
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Gross domestic product
good and services a country produces divided by population. per capita.(per person) A high gdp is a high economy where wealth can cause improved standards of living. disadv: inequalities, ethnocentric - as wealth is seen as a factor for well-being
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Human development index
aspects such as education, life expectancy and health care and wealt. score between 0-1 advantage: combines factors-holistic approach. disadv-blind to inequalities
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globalization evaluation (economic )
international division of labour by Marxist -third world produce for the first world. Hyperglobalists - increases competition, Neomarxists- exploits wage labourersand countries turned into slums.
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globalization evaluation (political globalization )
decline in important of nation states, resulted in policies, investment for health and safety laws, rise of political instiutions , eliviates suffering. Beck- not aware of issues so coordinate resources for example Isis in regions so we can deal with
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hyperglobalists view on political globalization
equalizes democracy. Death of nation states. Negative impact exaggerated.
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pesimistic globalists
loss of control over national borders, cross border crime, farmers in Nepal cant survive on crops so turn to drugs, uganda developed legalised marajuna in 2012
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traditionalists
losing sovereignity, growth of eu and UN, rich countries have more power.
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cultural globalization
hyperglobalists - beneficial, diffusing styles around the world. pesimistic globalists-cultural imperialism ,Mcdonaldization, coca colonization, negative phenomena . media benefits the rich, rise of conflict as west created isis who resist change
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evaluation of globalization-
giddens-communication across globe. marxist argue for countries of the majority world access to internet is non-existant, cohen and kennedy -globalization occured through social network, increased tourisms
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cohen and kennedy
4 transformations - increasing cultural interaction, increase shared problems such as economic, environmental and disease. production, transformationalists argue that process of transmitting culturally isnt a one way system.
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who benefits and who loses from globalization
cohen and kennedy - argue globalization creates global winner and losers globalizaton creates two problems : environmental damage and increased inequality due to spread of consumerism.
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anti-globalization movement
1995 attracted media attention at WTO in Seattle in 1999 and in Genoa in 2001
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transnational capitalist class
A global power made up of TNCS who operate globally and who trade in global markets.
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positives
neoliberals say poor miss out due to not being integrated into the economy, believe in long run everyone benefits, brings about economic growth to the whole world, will improve living standards.
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negatives
radicals say negative affects outweigh the positive effects. it delivered peace it has failed to deliver peace or ecomomic stability. progress towards development is slow. African countries even slipped backwards. Collier's botom billion not helped
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Sklair
winners of globalization are the "transnational capital class"
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Naomi Klein
winners are TNCS and is a project to expand profits.
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features of the dependency theory
1970s. cold war marxist approach by Frank who studied Latin american economies. critical of modernisation theory should follow the rich but not in the same way. external barriers impede development. "view from the south" exploitative relationships
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Walter Rodney's book : How Europe Underdeveloped Africa
this sums up the dependency approach
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underdevelopment
-external barriers. history of capitalism bought about exploitative relationships. developing countries made poorer by metropolis. in best interest to keeep them poor. Ha Joon Chang- "kicking the ladder away" (chang 2003)
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nature of dependency theory
-anticapitalist system-capitalism full of exploitation. develop self-reliance, history of capitalism central to dependency theory.rich countries benefit from the raw materials in a developing countries. rejects modernisation theory.-internal barriers
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mercantile capitalism
exploitative relationships began 700 years ago when merchant explorers like Colombus set off to find trade routes. They set terms to benefit them. exploitation created by outright threats of violence using military technology. slave trade set up
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history of capitalism
history of poor essential to understanding the situation we are in today. history suggested majority world can't follow in the footsteps of the west as suggested by modernization theorists.
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stage 2: colonialism
distinct themes- economies reshaped from diverse agriculture to production of raw materials for empires. geopolitics-set up nation states. breaking families apart. cultures-undermined being called inferior and knowledge systems destroyed.
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stage 3-neocolonialism
european powwers weakened by wars. pulled out of countries. but expoloitation still remained. ex colonies reliant on aid continued to be underdeveloped
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evaluation of dependency theory
strengths:emphasis on history of developing countries. emphasis on self-reliance. relevant today, idea of isolation and breaking free at time of war when metropolis is weak.
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weaknesses of dependency theory
blames the rich world, history of rich world is unimportant. doesnt make suggestions to address inequalities.
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features of modernization theory
1970s, cold war, internal factors of development impeded. social and economic factors need to be addressed. entrepreunerial skills and technologies. aid is desirable. Mcelland - "need for achievement " characteristics such as deffered gratification.
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Rostows five stages of economic growth
Traditional-subsistence farming, food grown for the growers family. little trade for profit. traditional values. 2.preconditions for take off-technological advancements. modern values taking hold. take off- equivalent to industrilisation
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drive to maturity-
social and logistical needs - roads needed to transport goods and educated workers for jobs like doctors/supervisors and team leaders etc
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high mass consumption
wealth trickles down to population, high standard of living, access to education, health care etc.
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explaining underdevelopment
social factors- Parsons- most important factors are ascribed status and collectivism . reference to "evolutionary universals" marks stages to go through such asthe decline of traditional kinship the extended family and the emergence of nuclear family
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Hoselitz
applied functionalist model of change to the third world. developing countries modernize socially and culturally obstacles include organizations that impede social mobility
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rostow-
"Anti-communist manifesto and described consumerism as a sort of decline which can bet all a transitional society if it fails to organise effectively.
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promoting development
cities act as a centre of western values. education- western schools in third world and send potential leaders to USa so that they absorb western values. mass media as radio spreads western ideas.
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promoting development
Marshall Plan 1947 rebuilds europe
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whats causes underdevelopment
having high birth rate, lack of entrepreunerial skills, lack of technology, lack of institutions that have capital such as banks. , having traditional values, lack of western values including gratification that Mcelland "need for achievement "
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Mcelland
"need for achievement " defferred gratification as people move to where there are jobs and work for longer.
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Aid
transfer of goods and expertise or capital from country to country in form of loans and gifts.
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Transnational Corporations
have businesses in all countries
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promoting development
Aid in the form of gifts and loans. investment by TNCS for expertise or to build infrastructure or new technologies.set up operatons such as Nike and Macdonalds. Another example of aid is the Marshall Plan 1947 .
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modernization theory today-
Like functionalism it is outdated but still relevant. 1) communist countries not successful in development. China only grew when it allowed capitalism into the country. 2) Rostows prediction of 60 years -china and india in tkae off in 1950s.
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people who have adopted modernization have improved standards of life
relevant.
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strengths of modernisation theory
-firm economic principles. -history of the rich world. -all countries can develop like the rich world.-deeply influential
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weaknesses of modernisation theory
-ethnocentric-rich world has no problems according to modernisation theory. heavy reliance on natural resources how the planet has the capacity to mantain this? uderstimates traditional societies.economies have no values,
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industrialisation causes environmental damage
this is a weaknesses.
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Neoliberalism
1970s development views shifted from modernisation to neoliberalism.friedman 1969 and bauer 1971. replaced modernisation as the "official" thing to do
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view on aid
aid is a seen as propping up corrupt governments and eradicting the need to care for countries.
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view on trade
trade is favoured should develop a free market.
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promoting development
structural adjustment programmes.-policies used by IGOs like IMF and World Bank.
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Adam Smith
"invisible hand of supply and demand" once this is used growth is self-sustainable and quality of life rises.
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aid breeds
"culture of reliance"handouts. acts as a subsidy and stops local industries from evolving.
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policies of neoliberalism
1) privatisation-public to private- public has a tax burden and private creates competition. 2) cuting taxes so governemnt dont take large sums of money and spend it on welfare state. 3) cutting state spending- so spend money freely. 4) free trade
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other policies-
cutting subsidies - protectionist policies reduced and government help price of goods and fuel low in some countries the price increase led to riots. getting rid of paratatal government
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parastatal
state run organisations known as marketing boards.
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integration into the whole economy
neoliberals believe that countries that are integrated develop
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Card 2

Front

Causes of globalization

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decrease in travel costs makes it easier for goods to be transported. many barriers of international trade have been removed. economic developments are central to globalization.

Card 3

Front

evidence for economic globalization

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Trasnational Corporations

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

more evidence for economic globalization

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