Paper One Exam Structure:
Intro: Short, outlining argument - e.g. gender differences down to wider
influences or internal/other factors?
First Paragraph: Focus on educational achievement (can split into 2 paragraphs)
‘As Item B states….at each age…’
Comment on external factors for both girls and boys and reference item again! Then say however other sociologists argue it could be down to other factors…(comment on internal/other factors)
Second Paragraph: Focus on subject choice (Can split into 2 paragraphs)
‘Item B states that there are major differences in subject choice….’
Split into external and internal factors- Gender role socialisation, gendered career opportunities- these are wider influences contrast with more internal factors- gender identity and peer pressure and gendered subject images.
Conclusion: The weight of evidence appears to suggest that…
Paper Two Exam Structure:
10 Mark ‘Outline and Explain’
Firstly, A argues… Furthermore B… Therefore, ...
Firstly, C argues… Furthermore D… Therefore, ...
10 Mark ‘Analyse’
Firstly, A shows… However, … On balance, ...
Firstly, B shows… However, … On balance, ...
20 Mark ‘Evaluate’
Intro : Define, Compare, Hypothesis
First Paragraph : Firstly, according to A… One may comment… By contrast, B argues… One may comment… However, one may comment… On balance...
Second Paragraph : Secondly, according to A… One may comment… By contrast, B argues… One may comment… However, one may comment… On balance…
Third Paragraph : In addition, according to A… One may comment… By contrast, B argues… One may comment… However, one may comment… On balance…
Conclusion : The weight of evidence suggests… A may be correct… However, B may overstate the case that...
Paper One - Education
Topic One - Class differences in achievement - External factors
External factors - factors outside education system e.g. influence of family background
Affects children's cognitive development
Tait et al (2002) - where parents use language that challenges children's ability (e.g. ‘What do you think?’) cognitive performance improves
Feinstein (2008) - educated parents more likely to use language this way and use praise which encourages children to develop sense of own competence.
Bereiter and Engelmann (1966) - language used in lower class homes is deficient - therefore unable to take advantage of opportunities school offers.
Bernstein (1975) - two types of speech code:
Elaborated code - (typically used by middle class as well as by teacher, exams and within textbooks) has wider vocab, communicating complex, abstract ideas therefore giving middle class children advantages within school
Restricted code - the opposite
Douglas (1964) - working class parents value education lower - less encouragement
Feinstein (2008) - middle class parents better educated - give their children more opportunities
Less educated parents won't be as disciplined or encouraging - prevents child’s independence - poorer school motivation
Parents’ Educational Behaviours
Educated parents more aware of what child needs e.g. reading to them, songs, poems
Use Of Income
Better educated parents have better incomes and spend money in ways to benefit their children