Global Challenges - going global

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> Companies and other organisations opening international and 'going global'
Globalisation has changed since the 1940s by:
1) more connections between people and places
2) further connections across the world

Population growth over time: the Demographic Model
Stage 1: high and fluctuating BR and DR: counterbalance, pop. low and stable - no birth control/education - no healthcare/sanitation etc.
Stage 2: high BR and decreasing DR: pop. increase rapidly - no birth control/education - improving healthcare/sanitation etc.
Stage 3: decreasing BR and DR: pop. steadily increasing. - introduced birth control/education - industrialisation, fewer children needed for work
Government may introduce policies: China's one child policy
Stage 4: fluctuating but stable BR and DR: pop. stable but high - less desire to have big families/expense - healthcare is at optimum, most deaths = old age
Stage 5: BR decline and DR stable: pop. decrease - greying population need care for, no time for families - elderly people in care homes

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Globalisation and population movements: people are visiting and relocating to distant places.
International elites: encourage globalisation = film stars, directors, actors, celebrities, media personalities - all on TV, use global transport, have brands e.g. David Beckham's underwear and aftershave. NHS and drug manufacture - people moving to other countries for legalised treatment, many drugs are manufactured in other countries and imported and exported.

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Measuring development

Measuring development:
PQLI: Physical Quality of Life Index: combining literacy rate, infant mortality and life expectancy.
HDI: Human Development Index: combining measures of life expectancy, literacy, education and GDP.
HSI: Human Suffering Index: combining daily calorie intake, clean water, inflation rate, communications, political freedom, civil rights - indicates quality of life.
GDP: Gross Domestic Product: indicator of economy - final goods
GDP (PPP): Earnings to what it could buy - a dollar can buy more in some countries than others.

Development pathway:
LLEDC: Nepal and Ethiopia - least less economically developed country
LEDC: Bangladesh and Morocco - less economically developed country
RIC: Thailand and Chile - recently industralised/developed country
NIC: South Korea and Portugal - newly industralised/developed country
MEDC: France and USA - more economically developed country

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Differences in world development

Third worlds:
1) First world: Advanced, industrialised, free-market economies = (West)
2) Second world: Communist and industrialised = (East)
3) Third world: Reamaining 75% of the world (the West and East only accounted for 25%)

Two worlds (North - South divide):
1980, the Brandt Report - achknowledged human wellbeing depended on more than economic growth - established a wider criteria for judging development - developed North should share wealth with undeveloped South

Developed North: North America, Europe, Australia
Undeveloped South: South America, Africa, China, India

One world:
Success of globalisation - gaps between rich and poor have declined.

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Economic and political groupings

G8: 65% of the world's trade - meets annually to discuss economic development.
Most powerful grouping with highest income - make decisions that affect the world.
> Russia > USA > UK > France > Canada > Germany > Italy > Japan

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. -global think tank for 30 of the world's wealthiest nations.

G20: 23 members from the developing world with a focus on agricultural trade.

World Bank: promotes investment globally and provides loans for countries.

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Trading Blocs

-- Group together countries in geographical areas, and encourage trade within the bloc by removing duties or tariffs on goods for members, and creating barriers to outsiders by placing tariffs on goods from outside. --

> European Union: Austria, Belgium, Greece and Italy etc.
> NAFTA: Canada, USA and Mexico
> ASEAN: Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Thailand etc.
> MERCOSUR: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay

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Transnational Corporations (TNCs)

> Nike > Disney > Apple > McDonald's > BMW > Coca-Cola

Have companies working in many coutries, developed and undeveloped = encourage globalisation by improving economic state and employing people for work.

TNC Growth
Motive: PROFIT. - Control costs of materials and producing goods.
Means: BANK - providing finance to grow e.g. HSBC
Mobility: fibre optics, own transport - cheaper

Economic - Invest in the economies of developing countries - raise wages and help spread wealth
Environmental - Try to establish 'green credentials' address issues like packaging, transport, fair trade
Political - Provides political stability between countries such as Europe and China

Economic - increases economic divide between some regions
Environmental - degradation
Political - Political conditions with conditions of Africa with civil war

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Global Networks

Shrinking world: the development of communication and technology systems is resulting in a shrinking world meaning distant places feel closer as they are easily accessible and communicated with. This is often called 'time space compression'.

Example of communication development enouraging a shrinking world:
morse code ----> telephone ----> satellite ----> fibre optics ----> broadband
Example of transport development encouraging a shrinking world:
Horse coaches ----> steam trains ----> propeller aircraft ----> jet passenger aircraft

The above helps encourage TNCs, increase tourism, and bring countries together all of which build a global network.

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Global hubs - being switched on - global winners

Global hubs and other networks are switched on places possessing qualities that make other places want to connect with them.

Switched on places: places strongly connected to other places through production and consumption of goods and services.
Use the most energy, heat, and light etc.

What makes a place switched on?
High flows of trade and investment > manufacturing and selling of products > high market > wealth > technology development

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Global hubs - being switched off - global losers

> Lack of global hub and flows of trade and investment with other countries
> Limited trade: they sell the primary products to countries for not much money who then manufacture them and make the main profit
> No real market potential because people can't afford products so there is little business operating
> Poverty
> Gap between switched off and switched on places is growing

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Population change causes

1) Advanced health systems
2) Improved hospitals and childcare - more successful births
3) Smallpox vaccination = less epidemics = lower death rate
4) Soldiers coming back from war - having babies with wives = baby booms - years later /1980-2000 = demographic bulge: women born in the first baby boom become fertile and having their own children
5) Contraception development - controls pregnancies - lowers STDs
6) TB vaccination = less epidemics = lower death rate

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Population systems - inputs and outputs

Economic: family wealth - availability of work - the cost of raising children
Social/Cultural: education - family planning - language - colonialism
Political: government policies - financial policies
Demographic: fertile group
Environment: safer to live

Economic: personal or family wealth
Social/Cultural: lifestyle: diet - addictions - exercise
Political: public spending - health services
Demographic: number of people in vulnerable age groups such as over 70s
Environment: pollution (contaminated water) - natural disaster frequency

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Population change

FAMILY SIZE: 1900s typically four children in a family and now there's one or two. There are also increased numbers in gay couples and divorcees. Also life expectancy has increased so grandparents are living longer increasing extended families


BIRTH RATE: Decreased - sex education from a young age - more working women postponing families

FERTILITY: Sex education ensures we know risks - contraception - abortion

MIGRATION: Southeast drift has occured in the UK - movement away from manufacturing and mining towns and towards settlements and service sector jobs

EMPLOYMENT: decline in traditional manufacturing + job losses in farming and mining = people moving away from primary and secondary employment and are entering 'white collar' work (finance, media, services)

SOCIAL STATUS/ASPIRATIONS: Start of 20th century most were 'working class', wage has risen and now define themselves as 'middle class'

ETHNICITY: 1950s large scale migration - increased pop. of ethnic minorities

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Causes of migration

Lee's push pull model:
Origin: more negative aspects than positive pushing people away to the destination
Intervening obstacles: incl. legal requirements, family pressures, language
Destination: more positive aspects than negative, pulling people to move away from the origin

Migration from Africa to Europe:
>> Detention Centres for people awaiting hearings for asylum claim cases
>> Front line preventing immigrants entering the EU ---> need to make agreement with Libya to police waters more carefully

Canary Islands
>> Many enter the EU via boat from Canary Islands
>> Rough seas
>> Overcrowded boats

Sahara Desert:
>> Dangerous route - heat related deaths and killing by bandits

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Migration: Current Trends: Asylum Seekers

Refugee: a fear of being persecuted for: race, religion, nationality, political opinion
A person seeking to be classed as a REFUGEE is an ASYLUM SEEKER - if granted they are able to stay in the country - if not they are deported

Rising concern

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Migration: Current Trends: Immigration &Emmigratio


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Rural to urban migration in LEDCs

> Shortages of services, education, water, power
> Droughts, poor yields, food shortages
> Only farming work
> Poverty
> Remote
> Little hope of change - old and traditional

> Standard of living is believed to be higher
> More employment opportunities
> Industry
> Improved housing
> Education and services

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Rural to urban migration in MEDCs

> More mechanisation therefore less jobs in rural areas

> Jobs in factories, mines and shipyards
> Higher wages
> Adavanced services and education
> Improved and developing roads and infrastructure

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Urbanisation: the increase in population living in towns and cities

Million/millionaire city: population of over 1 million
Super city: population of over 5 million
Mega city: population of over 10 million
World city: cities of power based on trade, political strength, innovation and communications
Megalopolis: a very large urban area that contains many metropolitan centres

STAGES of Urbanisation:
1) Suburbanisation - occurs in developing countries when the wealthy choose to escape and live on the outside of the city to escape crime, congestion and pollution of the city centre
2) Counter Urbanisation - refers to the movement of people out of cities and into rural areas.
3) Reurbanisation - attempt to regenerate cities that have declined.
4) Reurbanisation leads to URBANISATION which leads back to SUBURBANISATION and through the stage processes again

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World cities

World city: cities of power based on trade, political strength, innovation and communications

Political - United nations, European union
Transport &Communications - airports, ship ports, trains, internet, telephones
Economic power - stock exchanges and headquarters of major TNCs

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very brief not much detail lacking info

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