Reducing the environmental and social costs of globalisation

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  • Global challenges for the future
    • Recycling, reusing and refusing
      • Londoners produce 3.4 million tonnes of rubbish a year
      • Challenges of waste:
        • Landfill sites are running out
        • Recycling is cleaner, greener and provides new raw materials
        • Composting produces humus that improves soil
    • Carbon offsetting and trading
      • Carbon credits - these can be voluntary or certified
        • Voluntary: payments or projects which offset emissions with equivalent CO2 savings
        • Certified: International exchanges which aim to cut overall emissions - it allows high carbon producers to continue polluting while purchasing credits from those who do not
    • Ethical shopping
      • Local produce is returning to supermarkets
      • Farmers' markets are making a come-back
      • Minimises "food miles" and carbon emissions
        • However, consumers still use cars to go shopping
    • Free Trade
      • World Trade Organisation
        • Persuades countries to get rid of trade barriers
      • The factory worker or grower of a produce gets the smallest share of the final price of goods
    • Fair Trade
      • Aims to give a bigger proportion to the producers
      • The demand for Fair Trade products is rising rapidly, guaranteeing farmers a fixed price which reflects production costs


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