Geological Processes

for chem exam 

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Scientific word for the earths Crust

Lithosphere ( this is broken into 7 / 8 peices calles PLATES )

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The layers of the earth

  • a thin rocky Crust ( top layer 
  • The mantle ( solid outer part underneath a liquid inner part
  • The outer core and the inner core ( very hard, due to pressure ) 
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Alfred Wegener's Discovery

  • The noticed that africa and south america looked like 2 pieces of a jig-saw, the thought the 2 continents where once joined.
  • He noticed the the same types of rock in africa and south america
  • He found similar fossils of plants and animal on oppsite sides of huge oceans 
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Why didnt other scientists believe him?

Alfred Wegener could not expain how the continents had moved 

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Alfred wegeners theory today

The earths lithosphere is made up of huge slabs of rock called tectonic plates which are moving a few centimetres a year 

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Evidence to back up his theory

  • Studies of the shape of the ocean floor ( which shows it has mountains and canyons, rather than being flat ) 
  • New dating tecnology shows that the ocean floor was very young compared to the land 
  • investigations into the magnetic properties of the rocks on the seabed ( this shows that the seabed is moving ) 
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Causes of plate movement

  • slip past eachother ( earthquake ) 
  • move towards eathother ( mountains and volcanoes ) 
  • Move away for one another ( causes the release of ignous rock ) 
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Conservative Plate Boundary

Plates slip past eachother 

when 2 plates slip past one another then tend to jerk, causing Earthquakes. 

  • San Andreas Fault ( America ) 
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Destructive Plate Boundary ( Mountains )

Plates move towards eachother

If plates move towards eachother and they are of the same plate, neither with sink 

The force causes them to buckle upwards forming a new mountain

  • Mount Everest and The Alps  
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Destructive Plate Boundary ( Volcanoes )

Plates move towards eachother 

when two different plates move together, continental plate ( found on land ) and oceanic crust ( found under water )

The oceanic crust is densier then the continental crust , resulting in the oceanic crust sinking. 

As the inside of the earth is hot, this plate melts forming magma, this process is called subduction

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Constructive Plate Boundary

Plates move away for one another 

when plates move apart magma rises to the surface. The moltan rock quickly cools froming igneous rock

  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge 
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really good info well done

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