C2

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  • C2
    • Earth Structure
      • Plate movement cause earthquakes and volcanoes
      • Plate tectonic theory is now widely accepted
      • Evidence needs to be repeatable and agree for a theory to be accepted
      • Rock is recycled by geological processes
      • Scientists study volcanoes and earthquakes to try to predict future eruptions and seismic activity
    • Fertiliser
      • The Haber process is a reaction that makes ammonia.
        • This process is reversible.
        • nitrogen + hydrogen ammonia
      • Nitrogen and hydrogen will react together under these conditions:a high temperature - about 450ºCa high pressure - about 200 atmospheres (200 times normal pressure)an iron catalyst
      • Conditions for the Haber process can be adjusted to maximize the yield.
      • Fertiisers can cause eutrophication
      • Fertilizers can be made by a neutralization reaction,          Acid + base    --> salt + water.
    • Materials
      • Concrete is not very strong but can be reinforced with steel.
      • Rock are used as building materials.
      • Alloys contain at least one metal, but have different properties.
      • Metals are extracted from rocks.
      • Copper is extracted by reduction and is purified by electrolysis.
      • Metals are malleable - they can be bent and shaped without breaking. This is because they consist of layers of atoms that can slide over one another when the metal is bent, hammered or pressed.
    • Salt
      • sodium chloride is an important raw material, obtained by mining it from the ground or by solution mining.
      • Acids react with metal oxides and hydroxides, and metal carbonate to make salt
      • Electrolysis is used to split sodium chloride solution into hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide.
      • In electrolysis, positive ions move to the cathode, and negative ions to the anode.
      • The name of a salt has two parts. The first part comes from the metal, metal oxide or metal carbonate. The second part comes from the acid.

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