Geography Theme 1 Key Ideas


Urban Land Use Model in MEDCs 1/2

Central Business District: 

  • Cost of living - high
  • Housing types - apartments, high-rise flats
  • Housing tenures - owner occupied or privately rented
  • Characteristics - transport centres, leisure and recreation e.g. malls, sports facilities, business and factories

Inner City

  • Cost of living - low
  • Housing types - old terraced blocks, 1960s high rise flats
  • Housing tenures - owner occupied, social housing or privately rented
  • Characteristics - buildings may undergo gentrification by investors to produce student homes, factories in this area may have closed down so socioeconomic problems such as unemployment
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Urban Land Use Model in MEDCs 2/2

Inner/Outer Suburbs: 

  • Cost of living - medium/high
  • Housing type - Semi/detached houses
  • Housing tenure - owner occupied or privately rented 
  • Characteristics - family-friendly (places of worship, schools, supermarkets) and usually home to commuters from CBD 

Rural-Urban Fringe: 

  • Mixtures of land uses such as housing, golf courses, business parks and airports
  • This can cause conflicts between public and authorities as different groups of people have different needs and interests 
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The Urban Doughnut Effect

1. Occurs when a large amount of counter-urbanisation occurs.

2. Business and people move out of the city centre to the outskirts or rural area because of over-population, high house prices, competition for jobs or high crime rates.

3. Hence, middle of the city is abondoned. 

4. This means that urban sprawl occurs and makes rural areas more developed. 

5. This is what is meant by the dougnut as what's left is a hole in the middle of the city but development around it. 

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