Multi Use Coast
- Environmental, Economic, recreational
- St. Mary's Stadium. Southhampton FC. 32,000 people
- Key Haven Nature Reserve. 800 hectres mud flats & salt marshes. Migrating birds.
- Fawley chemical plant. One of largest in europe. Paint, rubber, ahhesive.
- Increasingly popular. 4 billion people, predicted 5.5 billion in 20 years time.
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- Areas used for business development
- Dubai. Spent over £500 billion pounds improving infastructure and developing
- Built Dubailand-24 theme parks and shopping areas
- Largest indoor ski dome in the world
- The Palm Jumeriah-international hotel, shopping malls and yachting marina
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- Many coastal areas use preservation to bring in tourists
- Key haven nature reserve, Southampton- 800 hectres of mud flats and salt marshes. Home to migrating birds.
- Praia do Forte, Brazil - Brazil's first eco-resort. Being developed with the preservation of nature in mind. The motto is "enjoy without destroying"
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- Long, low waves that spill on to the beach. Stong swash and weak backwash.
- Low energy waves.
- Builds beaches though deposition
- Low frequency (7-9 per min)
- Short steep waves that plunge onto the beach
- Quite strong swash, but much greater backwash.
- Beach sediment draged into sea leaving cliff open to erosion
- High energy waves
- High frequency (10-12 per min)
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Erosion Case Study
Dsecribing Old Harry's Rock
- Isle of Purbeck, Dorset, UK
- Vertical stack
- 25 metres high
- Chalk- made of compressed fossils called coccolith
Explain Old Harry's Rock
- Differential erosion occurs leaving headland and bay
- Processes of erosion and wethering work on head land and create cracks.
- Cracks eroded and turn into caves.
- Caves eroded in arches
- Arches get too big and collapse leaving stack
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Processes of Erosion and Weathering
- Hydraulic action-power of waves forces air into cracks and makes them bigger (10tonnes/msquared in storm 30 tonnes/msquared)
- Abrasion-waves fling pebbles and cobbles at cliff surface
- Attrition- small stones hit together and break down
- Wetting/drying- when rocks are wet they expand and contract when dry. This prolonged expanding and contracting weakens rocks
- Solution- natural acidity of water corrodes cliff.
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- Prevailing wind pushes swash up beach at an angle
- Gravity pulls backwash back down
- Constant coming in at angles transports sidiments along beach
- When longshore drift occurs and change of land dirction spit is formed
- Example, Spurn Head, Holdernss Coast- curved spit covers half of the Humber Estury
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Pevensy Bay (soft engineering)
- 25000 m^3 lost each year
- 20000 sprayed on to the bach from sea bed
- 5000 brough in trucks
- Sediment drifts down coast with longshore drift
- Taken back to its original place in lorries
- Backwash drags sediment down beach leaving top unprotected.
- Bulldozers push back up leaving gradual slope with protected top
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- Under pressure to develop for tourism
- Tourists damage coral reef by taking illegal souvineers (coral)
- Divers kill coral when they touch it
- SMMA (Soufriere marine managment area) set up to protect
- 4 sections
- Marine reserves- areas of high environmental importance and a limited amount of organised diving is allowed
- Fishing priority-commercial fishing boats only
- Recreational areas- Areas for beach recreation
- Multipurpose areas- all activities allowed unless they break general rules
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- Eroding fast-weak rock type, power of waves, unsheltered
- Boulder clay easy to erode as its unconsolidated
- Spurn head- spit, covers half of Humber estury
- Manged retreat- allowing land to flood so to prevent further erosion
- Happened at Kilnsea
- Did not put up denfences as was not cost efficient
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