Geography coasts

For my first geography exam of coasts

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  • Created by: Sam Day
  • Created on: 19-01-12 22:36

Multi Use Coast


  • Environmental, Economic, recreational
  • St. Mary's Stadium. Southhampton FC. 32,000 people
  • Key Haven Nature Reserve. 800  hectres mud flats & salt marshes. Migrating birds.
  • Fawley chemical plant. One of largest in europe. Paint, rubber, ahhesive.
  • Increasingly popular. 4 billion people, predicted 5.5 billion in 20 years time. 
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Growth Poles

Growth Poles

  • Areas used for business development
  • Dubai. Spent over £500 billion pounds improving infastructure and developing
  • Built Dubailand-24 theme parks and shopping areas
  • Largest indoor ski dome in the world
  • The Palm Jumeriah-international hotel, shopping malls and yachting marina
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  • Many coastal areas use preservation to bring in tourists
  • Key haven nature reserve, Southampton- 800 hectres of mud flats and salt marshes. Home to migrating birds.
  • Praia do Forte, Brazil  - Brazil's first eco-resort. Being developed with the preservation of nature in mind. The motto is "enjoy without destroying"
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Constructive Waves

  • Long, low waves that spill on to the beach. Stong swash and weak backwash. 
  • Low energy waves.
  • Builds beaches though deposition
  • Low frequency (7-9 per min)

Destructive Waves

  • Short steep waves that plunge onto the beach
  • Quite strong swash, but much greater backwash.
  • Beach sediment draged into sea leaving cliff open to erosion
  • High energy waves
  • High frequency (10-12 per min)
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Erosion Case Study

Dsecribing Old Harry's Rock

  • Isle of Purbeck, Dorset, UK
  • Vertical stack
  • 25 metres high
  • White
  • Chalk- made of compressed fossils called coccolith

Explain Old Harry's Rock

  • Differential erosion occurs leaving headland and bay
  • Processes of erosion and wethering work on head land and create cracks.
  • Cracks eroded and turn into caves.
  • Caves eroded in arches
  • Arches get too big and collapse leaving stack
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Processes of Erosion and Weathering


  • Hydraulic action-power of waves forces air into cracks and makes them bigger (10tonnes/msquared in storm 30 tonnes/msquared)
  • Abrasion-waves fling pebbles and cobbles at cliff surface
  • Attrition- small stones hit together and break down


  • Wetting/drying- when rocks are wet they expand and contract when dry. This prolonged expanding and contracting weakens rocks
  • Solution- natural acidity of water corrodes cliff. 
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Longshore Drift

  • Prevailing wind pushes swash up beach at an angle
  • Gravity pulls backwash back down 
  • Constant coming in at angles transports sidiments along beach
  • When longshore drift occurs and change of land dirction spit is formed
  • Example, Spurn Head, Holdernss Coast- curved spit covers half of the Humber Estury
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Pevensy Bay (soft engineering)

Beach Replenishment

  • 25000 m^3 lost each year 
  • 20000 sprayed on to the bach from sea bed
  • 5000 brough in trucks 

Beach Recycling

  • Sediment drifts down coast with longshore drift
  • Taken back to its original place in lorries

Beach Reprofiling

  • Backwash drags sediment down beach leaving top unprotected.
  • Bulldozers push back up leaving gradual slope with protected top
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Fragile Coastlines

St. Lucia

  • Under pressure to develop for tourism
  • Tourists damage coral reef by taking illegal souvineers (coral)
  • Divers kill coral when they touch it
  • SMMA (Soufriere marine managment area) set up to protect
  • 4 sections 
  • Marine reserves- areas of high environmental importance and a limited amount of organised diving is allowed
  • Fishing priority-commercial fishing boats only
  • Recreational areas- Areas for beach recreation
  • Multipurpose areas- all activities allowed unless they break general rules
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Soft Coastline

Holderness Coast

  • Eroding fast-weak rock type, power of waves, unsheltered
  • Boulder clay easy to erode as its unconsolidated
  • Spurn head- spit, covers half of Humber estury
  • Manged retreat- allowing land to flood so to prevent further erosion
  • Happened at Kilnsea
  • Did not put up denfences as was not cost efficient
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Lucy Storey

Thank Sam! This really helped for my mocks! The MP3 was a bit strange though haha, but thanks :)

Shaun Mitchell


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