Geography Revision Cards

  • Created by: mkindell
  • Created on: 18-05-15 17:49

Earthquake Mitigation

Earthquake drills

  • practice what happens in an earthquake --> emergency services --> schools

Emergency kits

  • kept in case of an earthquake (food, water, blankets, torch, radio --> not preventative but useful

HIC Earthquake proof buildings

  • taller building, deep foundations, rubber shock absorbers, double glazing, steel frame

LIC Earthquake proof building

  • wooden cross bracing, steel rod foundations, thatched roof
1 of 36


Dynamic - a force that stimulates change or progress within a system

2 of 36


Sustainable - meeting the needs of the present without comprimising the needs of the future (using resources carefully

3 of 36

Layers of the Earth ("spheres")


  • Layer of gases which make up the air around us
  • oxygen - humans need to respire, CO2 - plants need to photosynthesise


  • Layer of water on the earths crust
  • water cycle, water for plants & animals


  • layer of living organisms (on the earth's crust)
  • live on & survive, food & water, organisms used for medicines


  • layer of rock (earths core-crust)
  • cores magnetic field protects us from space radiation, minerals, fossils, fuel, building materials

the four layers interact throught the hydrological cycle

4 of 36

Earth's Structure

Inner Core

  • solid layer made from iron
  • 5500 degrees centigrade

Outer core

  • liquid layer of iron


  • thick semi-solid layer
  • 1300-5000 degrees centigrade


  • solid outer layer
  • 6-70km deep

Lithosphere = the crust and upper layer of the mantle, split into tectonic plates, solid, cooler

asthenosphere = upper layer of the mantle below the lithosphere, semi-solid, hotter

5 of 36

Constructive Plate Boundary

Example: Mid Atlantic Ridge (Iceland - Volcano)

  • Two oceanic plates move apart
  • magma rises to fill the gap and cools, forming land
  • creates volcanoes --> earthquakes

Iceland's land mass is increasing as the plates move apart

6 of 36

Destructive Plate Boundary

Example: Andes Mountains

  • Continental plate meets an oceanic plate
  • the oceanic plate is subducted underneath the continental plate because it is more dense
  • as the oceanic plate is subducted it is heated and melts forming magma --> increased volume of magma causes pressure to build --> leads to volcano(es) forming & volcanic eruptions
  • friction between the moving plates can cause earthquakes
7 of 36

Conservative Plate Boundary

Example: San Andreas Fault

  • two continental plates rub against each other either in different directions or in the same direction at different speeds
  • friction causes small tremors
  • large slips cause larger earthquakes
8 of 36

Collision plate boundary

Example: Himalayas, The Alps (african plate colliding with Eurasian plate)

  • two continental plates of similar depth and densities meet meet and force each other upwards / ground between them buckles under pressure --> creates fold mountains
9 of 36

Convection currents

mantle - earths layer in which convection currents occur

plumes - magma rising

convection cell - a singular current of magma

convection current - a circular flow of magma in the mantle

  • magma in the mantle is heated by the earths core
  • a plume of magma rises
  • as it reaches the earths crust it cools and solidifies slightly, begins to sink
  • this creats a convection cell/convection current - a circular flow of magma from the core to the crust then back down to the core
  • this circular movement moves the tectonic plates (continental drift)
10 of 36

Volcanoes Key words/info

eruptions measured in VEI (Volcanic explosive Index) on a scale of 1 - 8 (least - worst)

Volcano - an opening or vent in the earth's surface through which molten magma erupts and solidifies as lava

Active - currently erupting (erupting often)

Dormant - not currently erupting but due to erupt in the future

Extinct - no longer erupting(/active)

viscosity - thickness (of lava - high viscosity = thicker, more solid lava)

crater - the volcano's opening

vent - the passage by which the magma exits

magma chamber - area within the volcano body containing magma

predicted by monitoring earthquakes or gases escaping from vent/crator

prevention/reduction of effects - shelters, emergency supplies, evacuation, refugee camps, rescue missions, aid


11 of 36

Volcanic Eruption Effects

Primary effects - happen immediately (during eruption)

  • lava flows
  • acid rain
  • poisonous gases
  • ash cloud
  • pyroclastic flows
  • volcanic bombs

Secondary effects - delayed, occur as a result of the eruption

  • food & water shortages
  • evacuation / refugee camps
  • loss of homes
  • livestock / crops destroyed
  • disease spreads (e.g. cholera)
12 of 36

Volcano Types

Composite Volcano - larger, steep slopes, more powerful eruptions, more layers of cooled ash and lava, high viscosity, usually formed on destructive plate boundaries (e.g. Sakurajima, Japan)

shield volcano - smaller, rounded / less steep, weaker eruptions, high viscosity, lava and ash flows slower and further, usually formed on constructive plate boundaries (e.g. Icelandic Volcano)

13 of 36


earhtquake - a sudden violent movement of the earth

  • occur after a build up of pressure causes rocks to give way
  • measured using a seismograph, on the richter scale
  • mostly occur on plate boundaries and after volcanic eruptions

Can be caused by:

  • nuclear testing
  • drilling for oil
  • coal mining
  • weight of large dams
  • fracking

focus - the point below the earths surface (inside the crust) where the pressure is released

epicentre - the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus, where the most movement is felt

shallow focus earthquake - an earthquake with a focus near to the earths surface (more severe)

deep focus earthquake - an earthquake with a focus deep in the earths surface (less severe)

14 of 36


Climate - The average weather of an area over the past 30 years 

15 of 36


Weather - climate on a day-to-day basis (e.g. temperature, rainfall)

16 of 36

Understanding Past Climates

  • Ice age/glacial periods - interglacial periods
  • fossils
  • landforms (e.g U-shaped valleys left by glaciers)
  • Ice cores
  • carbon dating
  • human records (photos, diaries, harvest records, paintings)
17 of 36

Eruption Theory (change in climate)

Large volcanic eruptions produce ash clouds

wind causes the ash cloud to spread around our atmosphere

ash ---> blocks out suns rays

sulphur dioxide --> global cooling

Example: Mount Pinatubo, Philippines 1991 eruption released 17 million tonnes of CO2 and Sulfur Dioxide reducing global sunlight

18 of 36

Sunspot & Solar Output

dark spots on the sun release a larger amount of solar energy

cooler periods, such as the little ice age, and warmer periods have been caused by changes in sunspot activity

19 of 36

Greenhouse Gas

the natural GHE (greenhouse gas effect) is essential

  • layer of gases (e.g CO2, Methane
  • reflect some sunlight and traps the rest in the earths atmosphere --> keeps global climate constant
  • enhanced GHE caused by industrial revolution ---> rising population --> more people using fossil fuels etc, more farms (cows produce methane)
  • thicker layer of gas traps more solar energy in the earths atmosphere for longer --> increase in global climate (--> ice melts --> water levels rise)
20 of 36

Global Effects of Climate Change


  • mediterranean summers
  • more coastal cities
  • season times increase
  • change in crops
  • temperatures rise by 1-2 degrees


  • major cities at risk of flooding
  • some areas become drier OR wetter --> crops die
  • preventative flood measures costing £10 billion (UK)
  • greater risk of forest fires
  • loss of Coral reefs
  • increase in tropical diseases
  • glacial melting --> sea levels rise
  • extinction of animals --> upset in food webs
21 of 36


ecosystem - a community of plants and animals (biotic) that interact with each other and their physical environment (abiotic - e.g light, water, energy, rocks, minerals, air)

small scale / large scale - large scale are called biomes e.g. Deserts, Rainforests, Tundra

22 of 36

Factors affecting Biomes

  • Latitude - angle affects the way the suns rays hit the earths surface, more vegetation in the tropics than at the poles
  • continetally - land: quick to heat/cool, water: slow to heat/cool --> land has more extreme climates, marine biomes less extreme
  • altitude - atmosphere is thinner at high altitude & temperature is colder --> fewer plants and animals able to survive at high altitude
  • temperature
  • precipitation - where air is forced to rise (low pressure) i.e. at the equator - more precipitation --> rainforests / tropical climate
  • geology - permeable rock absorbs water --> drier climate --> less water for vegetation
  • drainage - areas drained by rivers are drier
  • Soil - where soil is thin/lacking in nutrients its harder for plants to grow
23 of 36

Biosphere Goods & Services

Goods - physical items that can be removed and used for personal / commercial use

  • medicine
  • wood/timber
  • fruit & nuts

Services - regulating/mainting something

  • nutrient cycle
  • provides habitat
  • regulates atmosphere
  • water cycle
  • carbon cycle
  • Tourism
  • maintaining soil
  • "Green lungs"
24 of 36

Conserving the biosphere (sustainability)

sustainable management - limiting harm to the environment to reach the meet the needs of the people now and in the future (Economy, Social equality, Environment)

National Parks - 15 in UK, prevent damage to rural areas

Ecotourism - tourism that doesnt damage the environment, e.g. in the rainforest, coral reefs, safaris

RAMSAR - set up in 1971, protects wetlands

25 of 36

Keystone (species)

Keystone (species) - a species that has a large effect on others, e.g. bees pollinate flowers 

26 of 36

Sustainable management (Logging)

  • Selective logging - some tree cover remains to protect soil, vegetation, animals
  • extractive reserve - rubber, nuts
  • Agroforestry - crops grown beneath the shade of trees, maintains biodiversity in agriculture
  • Afforestation - seedling nurseries planted in areas of deforestation
  • Eco-tourism
27 of 36

Uses of Water

  • more technology (e.g. showers, baths)
  • sewage
  • irrigation --> watering crops
  • Industrial uses --> cooling in nuclear power plants
  • Dams --> energy production
  • Attractions (e.g. fountains, water parks)
28 of 36

Problems of Over-abstraction

  • nature - fish die, vegetation, more pollutants as water volume decreases so less dilute
  • humans - drought --> hose pipe bans, increase in water prices
  • LIC - not enough water --> people drink dirty water --> disease (e.g. cholera) --> people die
29 of 36

Coral Reefs

  • groups of living organisms found in marine waters
  • vital to humans for: medicines, fishing, tourism, research, aquarium trade, education
  • mostly between tropic of cancer / capricorn in water of 25cm deep or less
  • Coral reefs require very specific conditions of light, oxygen, clear water and a temperature of between 23-29 degrees centigrade
30 of 36

Threats to Coral Reefs

  • overfishing - upsets eco-system
  • coastline industrialisation - siltation --> blocks out sunlight
  • temperature rise --> coral bleaching, --> ice caps melt --> deeper water
  • volcanic eruptions --> sulfur dioxide melts ice caps --> sea levels rise --> deeper water
  • Tourism --> trampling, tourist food, souvenirs
  • Pollution --> ruins water quality
31 of 36

difficulties in managing the fishing industry

  • opinions vary
  • many people make a living by fishing and would struggle to earn money any other way
  • its difficult to monitor boats
  • its hard to quantify a catch (overfishing prevention)
  • fishing quotas are controversial as many dead fish are dumped if a catch goes over the limit
  • some people live mostly off fish, stricter fishing regulations mean less fish available (especially specific species) --> prices rise
32 of 36

River Transport Processes

Traction - large rocks are rolled along the river bed by the current

Saltation - smaller rocks bounce along the river bed

Suspension - sediment carried by the current

Solution - dissolved rock particles carried by the current

33 of 36

River Courses

Upper course - near the source, starts high, steep

  • features: V-shaped valley, interlocking spurs, waterfalls
  • cross-section: shallow, round, rough - vertical erosion cutting downwards
  • transport: traction, some saltation
  • human use: dams, sheep farming

Middle course - less steep

  • features: meanders, slip-off slopes
  • cross-section: flatter, broader - lateral erosion, some vertical
  • transport: saltation, some suspension
  • human use: clutivated land, occaisional market towns

Lower Course - near mouth, flat

  • features: ox-bow lakes, levees, deltas, mud flats,
  • cross-section: wide, square - lateral erosion, deposition
  • transport: suspension, solution
  • human use: flat fertile land ideal for farming and towns/cities
34 of 36

Flood Management

Hard = man made

  • Dams
  • Embankments
  • Straightening & Dredging
  • Flood walls
  • Storage areas / balancing lakes

Soft = natural --> sustainable

  • Afforestation
  • Washlands
  • Warning systems
  • Land use zoning
35 of 36

River Erosion Processes

Hydraulic action - the force of water against a rivers banks

Attrition - material of the rivers load collides with each other and are broken down and smoothed

Corrasion/Abrasion - the load rubs against the river banks as it is carried by the current

Corrosion - acidity of river water dissolves the bed and banks

36 of 36


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all all topics resources »