geography revision

What is globilisation?



What is Globilisation?

Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. The biggest companies are no longer national firms but multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries.

This results in:

  • increased international trade
  • a company operating in more than one country
  • greater dependence on the global economy
  • freer movement of capital, goods, and services
  • recognition of companies such as McDonalds and Starbucks in LEDCs
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TNC's start

What are the Transnational Corporations?

Globalisation has resulted in many businesses setting up or buying operations in other countries. When a foreign company invests in a country, perhaps by building a factory or a shop, this is called inward investment. Companies that operate in several countries are called multinational corporations (MNCs) or transnational corporations (TNCs). The US fast-food chain McDonald's is a large MNC - it has nearly 30,000 restaurants in 119 countries.

Factors attracting TNC's to LEDC's or any other country:

  • cheap raw materials
  • cheap labour supply
  • good transport
  • access to markets where the goods are sold
  • friendly government policies

More info on this on a larger revision card

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Manufacturing as a system

An open loop system starts with Input, then Processing, then Output (

  • Input is what goes into the system. For example:
    • - brief from customer
    • - artwork from designer
    • - materials
  • Process is the shaping and forming of the materials, or the exchange of information needed to effect the output. For example:
    • - printing sample copies
    • - adjusting machines
    • - cutting materials
  • Output is what comes out of the system. For example:
    • - a satisfied customer or a product
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Causes of an Earthquake


An earthquake is the shaking and vibration of the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates (plate tectonics). Earthquakes can happen along any type of plate boundary.

Earthquakes occur when tension is released from inside the crust. Plates do not always move smoothly alongside each other and sometimes get stuck. When this happens pressure builds up. When this pressure is eventually released, an earthquake tends to occur.

The point inside the crust where the pressure is released is called the focus. The point on the Earth's surface above the focus is called the epicentre.

Earthquake energy is released in seismic waves. These waves spread out from the focus. The waves are felt most strongly at the epicentre, becoming less strong as they travel further away. The most severe damage caused by an earthquake will happen close to the epicentre.

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The Movement of the plate tectonics (Convection))

Plate tectonics

The Earth's crust and upper part of the mantle are broken into large pieces called tectonic plates. These are constantly moving at a few centimetres each year. Although this doesn't sound like very much, over millions of years the movement allows whole continents to shift thousands of kilometres apart. This process is called continental drift.

The plates move because of convection currents in the Earth's mantle. These are driven by the heat produced by the decay of radioactive elements and heat left over from the formation of the Earth.

Where tectonic plates meet, the Earth's crust becomes unstable as the plates push against each other, or ride under or over each other. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions happen at the boundaries between plates, and the crust may ‘crumple’ to form mountain ranges.

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Characteristics of an earthquake

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Primary and Secondary responses to Earthquakes

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Volcanoes characteristics

Lava bombs= Rock which may block the crater and is exploded out during sn eruption

Lava= Very hot runny liquid rock which flows onto the surface of the volcano

Magma= Super hot rock formed under high pressure

Vent= A channel which transfers the hot magma to the surface.

Secondary vent= A smaller vent develops to release building up in the main vent.

Crater= A hole at the top.

Magam Chamber= An area underground wheree magma is stored.

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Volcano Diagram

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