Coral Reefs and How They Form
Coral is...the habitat for 1/4 of ocean wildlife
coral polyp (alkaline skeleton) + algae (photo-synthesising) = coral
- free-swimming larvae attatching themselves to submerged rocks or other hard surfaces at the edges of islands or continents
- The coral polyps secrete skeletons from the underside of their skin
- These skeletons protect the coral animals from predators and also offer a substrate on which new coral polyps can attatch themselves.
Coral grows best in warm water (21-29° C) which is needed for the coral to grow as it is warm and saline.
Coral needs shallow water for abundant light. Cannot thrive in deep water as they need light for photosynthesis.
Coral reefs avoid river mouths as they avoid murky water and sediment as it blocks out light for photosynthesis.
Risks Coral Reefs Face
Global Warming Higher sea temperatures Coral needs a certain temperature, higher temperature = struggle to survive and form.
Rising Sea Levels (ice caps melting and hot water takes up more space than cool) Coral needs shallow water, higher water level = less sunlight for coral.
Ocean Acidification CO2 + H2O = carbonic acid, carbon dioxide dissolves into sea water and the carbonic acid will dissolve coral alkaline skeleton -> weakens coral.
Tourism - increase in waste water from developments pumped into sea, reducing quality.
Fishing - 90% of coral damage is done through large nets (fishing industry worth $6bill)
Pollution - nutrient enrichment occurs, predators (COTS) breed, impacts food webs
Deforestation - soil runs off land, "suffocates" coral, blocks sunlight
Large Scale Agriculture - runoff of phosphorus and nitrates, blocks out sunlight and anoxic water.
Management of Reefs
Fishing no fishing zones, temporary bans on fish during breeding season, sustainable fishing - limits on catch size, voluntary bans on aquarium fish.
Water Pollution guidlines "trigger" levels to take action, voluntary program to educate people involved to manage, improve waste treatment, encourage farmers to use methods which reduce sediment in rivers
COTS feeds on coral, 1) physical removal with wooden stick/rod, low cost and COTs used as fertilizer, potentially dangerous 2) chemical injection at base of COT, more efficient, higher cost, can spawn or shed if done incorrectly
Zoning used to manage park, each zone has rules, retain environment whilst keeping economic activities, zoning is not perfect, high levels of protection
Tourism confine tourists to certain areas, restrict usage eg no water sports area, limit number of visiting tourists to vunerable reefs
Shipping follow legalisation not private, government owned, don't maximise profit
Positives of Outsourcing
Outsourcing is a process used by different companies to reduce costs by transferring portions of work to outside suppliers rather than completing it internally.
- Cost benefits; The job can be done at a lower and a better quality. Because of the difference in wages between Western countries and Asia, the work can be done for a fraction of the cost internally. There is a cost saving of 60% and it also ensures low cost does not mean low quality. This means that companies gain a greater profit because of their cheaper labour.
- Lax Laws: The laws in LICs are not very strict which some fashion companies take advantage of. These laws are negligent on things such as pollution, factory conditions and working treatments, resulting in labour to be done at a cheaper profits.
Negatives of Outsourcing
- Exploitation and Human Rights Violation: Bangladesh is the worlds second large apparel producer and the cheapest place to produce clothing. However, workers face dangerous working conditions in the factories, costing some their lives (146 workers killed in the Triangle Sweatshirt fire in 1911.) The factories exploit human rights because of harmful cheap conditions and no laws in place. This means that this is a social negative as people are violated.
- Lost jobs: The US textile and apparel industry has lost millions of jobs due to outsourcing since the 2000s, because of the manufacturing overseas. Over 6 million jobs lost. This loss of jobs means unemployment leading to poverty and the economy suffering.
- Relief - flat land is preferable for camping, stages and moving festival "gear" around the site. However a gentle slope can help people get a better view.
- Urban populations - cities contain more people who might be attracted to come
- Quieter, less populated rural areas - it helps if there are not too many people in the immediate area to annoy with noise.
- Communication links - motorways, main roads, rail and even air links help people get to and from the site easier.
- Landscape - pleasant, scenic surroundings make the location attractive to people wanting to enjoy the surroundings
- Agriculture - grass recovers and grows back relatively quickly after disturbance. Livestock farms are usually extensive and provide large areas for festival crowds.
- Climate - dry and warm weather is preferable if you're a festival goer! The south of the UK is warmer and dryer, on average, than the north.
Six figure grid references
On an OS map each grid square is 1 km x 1 km or 1 sq km.
When you give a grid reference, always give the easting first... "Alongthe corridor and up the stairs"
for six figure grid : measure how many tenths across your symbol lies. Write this number after the first two digits.
- In this instance, the tourist information office is located at 476334.