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HARD ENGINEERING
HARD ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES INVOLVE MAJOR
CONSTRUCTION WORK AND ARE USUALLY VISUALLY
INTRUSIVE.

Flood Relief Channel
The channel course of the river can also be altered, diverting
floodwaters away from the settlements.

Advantages

Very effective, should last for many years.

Can be used for water sports.

Makes the people…

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Can be used in areas where space is limited.

Disadvantages

They have to be assembled very well so that water doesn't get through
joints.

Channelization
River channel may be widened or deepened allowing it to carry more
water may be straightened so that water can travel faster along the
course.…

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Concrete embankments are ugly and spoil the view.

Often not built high enough.



Dams
Often built along the course of the river in order to control the amount of
discharge water is held back by the dam and released in a controlled
way.

Advantages

The water that is stored in…

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Natural looking.

Disadvantages

Need a large area of land that is not being used.

Only come into use when the river has flooded



SOFT ENGINEERING
THE FEATURES OF SOFT ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES:

TRY TO WORK WITH THE NATURAL PROCESSES AT WORK
ON THE COASTLINE.
TRY TO BE VISUALLY UNOBTRUSIVE.
DO NOT…

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Resistance to restricting developments in areas where there is a
housing shortage.

Enforcing planning regulations and controls may be harder in LICs.








Washlands
The river is allowed to flood naturally in wasteland areas, to prevent
flooding in other areas, for example, near settlements.

Advantages

Costeffective as nothing is built.

Provides…

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Cheap

Electronic communication is a very effective way of informing people.

With warning, people can move valuable belongings to a safer place.

Disadvantages

Sirens can be vandalised.

Might not be enough time for residents to prepare.





Afforestation
Trees are planted in the catchment area of the river to intercept the…

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PREDICTION AND PREVENTION

EDUCATION
Governments give advice to the general public via the
internet. The advice includes information on how to
protect your house.
On the Environment Agency website there is
information on the likelihood of a flood. This will be
identified by a system of warning codes: flood watch,…

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The Met Office predicts (forecasts) the likelihood of a
flood. The information gets to householders through
weather forecasts and news broadcasts on the TV and
radio. It is also on their website.
If there is a likelihood of flooding the Met Office advises
householders to be proactive and either ring…

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floodrisk areas unless a floodrisk assessment has
been carried out.
In 2010 the law requires all new housing in floodrisk
areas to be flood resistant or resilient.
DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs) has the responsibility for deciding which areas
are going to be defended against the risk…

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