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HARD ENGINEERING
HARD ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES INVOLVE MAJOR
CONSTRUCTION WORK AND ARE USUALLY VISUALLY
INTRUSIVE.
Flood Relief Channel
The channel course of the river can also be altered, diverting
floodwaters away from the settlements.
Advantages
Very effective, should last for many years.
Can be used for water sports.
Makes the people who live close to the main river safer as the flood
water is diverted into the relief channel.
No disruption is caused to residents next to the original course of the
river.…read more

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Can be used in areas where space is limited.
Disadvantages
They have to be assembled very well so that water doesn't get through
joints.
Channelization
River channel may be widened or deepened allowing it to carry more
water may be straightened so that water can travel faster along the
course.
Advantages
Effectively protects immediate area because water is moved away
quickly ­ long lasting.
Disadvantages
Unnatural and visually intrusive.…read more

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Concrete embankments are ugly and spoil the view.
Often not built high enough.
Dams
Often built along the course of the river in order to control the amount of
discharge water is held back by the dam and released in a controlled
way.
Advantages
The water that is stored in a reservoir behind the dam can be used to
generate hydroelectric power or for recreation purposes.
Disadvantages
Can be expensive to build.…read more

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Natural looking.
Disadvantages
Need a large area of land that is not being used.
Only come into use when the river has flooded
SOFT ENGINEERING
THE FEATURES OF SOFT ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES:
TRY TO WORK WITH THE NATURAL PROCESSES AT WORK
ON THE COASTLINE.
TRY TO BE VISUALLY UNOBTRUSIVE.
DO NOT INVOLVE MAJOR CONSTRUCTION WORK.
Floodplain Zoning
Local authorities and the national government introduce policies to
control urban development close to or on the floodplain.…read more

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Resistance to restricting developments in areas where there is a
housing shortage.
Enforcing planning regulations and controls may be harder in LICs.
Washlands
The river is allowed to flood naturally in wasteland areas, to prevent
flooding in other areas, for example, near settlements.
Advantages
Costeffective as nothing is built.
Provides potential wetland for plants and animals.
The deposited silt may enrich the soil, turning the area into agricultural
land.
Disadvantages
Large areas of land are taken over and cannot be built on.…read more

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Cheap
Electronic communication is a very effective way of informing people.
With warning, people can move valuable belongings to a safer place.
Disadvantages
Sirens can be vandalised.
Might not be enough time for residents to prepare.
Afforestation
Trees are planted in the catchment area of the river to intercept the
rainfall and slow down the flow of water to the river.
Advantages
Relatively lowcost option.
Improves the quality of the environment.
Soil erosion is avoided as trees prevent rapid runoff after heavy rainfall.
Very sustainable.…read more

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PREDICTION AND PREVENTION
EDUCATION
Governments give advice to the general public via the
internet. The advice includes information on how to
protect your house.
On the Environment Agency website there is
information on the likelihood of a flood. This will be
identified by a system of warning codes: flood watch,
flood warning, severe flood warning and all clear. These
warning codes give people information on what to
expect and how to react.…read more

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The Met Office predicts (forecasts) the likelihood of a
flood. The information gets to householders through
weather forecasts and news broadcasts on the TV and
radio. It is also on their website.
If there is a likelihood of flooding the Met Office advises
householders to be proactive and either ring a flood
hotline number or go to the Environment Agency's
website to check the likelihood of a flood in their area.…read more

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In 2010 the law requires all new housing in floodrisk
areas to be flood resistant or resilient.
DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs) has the responsibility for deciding which areas
are going to be defended against the risk of flooding.
The Environment Agency then organises for the
defences to be built and maintained. Defra provides the
money for most of the work that is completed.…read more

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