Geography - general definitions (Human geography)

Personal factors
Such as family and friends and things we've done whilst growing up
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Physical landscape
hills, mountains, coasts ect
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Human landscape
For example Suffolk's, thatched cottages or Yorkshire's gritstone buildings
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Economic past
Many large civic buildings in NW England date from wealthy Victorian industrial past
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Religious past
Churches, Mosques, Synagogues form the heart of many places
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Food and Drink
e.g. Scottish Whiskey, Yorkshire puddings
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Media portrayal
Books, films and TV. Corrie (Manchester) or Doc Martin (Cornwall)
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Space
A simple concept, single dimension. It is the physical location that a place is
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Place
It is both space and time that come together in place, and therefore a 'particular place not only brings together local and global influences, multiple cultures and identities, but it also contains historical influences which shape its present
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Location
Where a place is on a map, its latitude and longitudinal coordinations
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Local
Each pace contains a series of locals or settings where everyday life takes place. Examples include a school, an office, a park, a home or a church.
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Sense of place
The personal and emotional attachment to a place...what is means to you
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A descriptive approach
The idea that the world is a set of places and each place can be studied and distinct
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A social constructionist approach
Sees place as a product of a particular set of social processes occurring at a particular time
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A phenomenological approach
It is interested in how an individual person experiences place, recognition a highly personal relationship between place and person
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Perception of place
This is the way in which place is viewed or regarded by people.This can be influenced by media representation or personal experience
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Placemaking
A deliberate shaping of an environment to facilitate social interaction and improve a community's quality of life
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Localism
An affection for or emotional ownership of a particular place
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Regionalism
Consciousness of, and loyalty to, a distinct region with a population that shares similarities
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Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a nation
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Placelessness
Is the idea that a place 'could be anywhere' and it lacks uniqueness
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Glocalisation
When MNC's adapt to the local market
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well-being
What makes a place great such as sociability shows a strong community and friendly environment
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Gated Communities
Enclosed housing estates where access is strictly controlled
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Topophilia
love or a place
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Topophobia
hate of a place
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Time space convergence
the impression that distances between 2 locations have decreased due to improvements in transport and communication
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Experienced places
those places that a person has spent time in
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Media places
those places that the person has only read about or seen on a film
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Endogenous
Characteristics which have originated internally
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Exogenous
Characteristics which are external and its relationship to other places
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Utilitarian
Designed to be useful or particular rather than attractive
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Homogenized
Composed of parts or elements that are all of the same kind
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Agents of change
These are the people who impact on a place whether through living, working or trying to improve that place.
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Meaning
Peoples perception of place
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Representation
How a place is portrayed in society
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Re-imaging
Disassociates a place from bad pre existing images in relation to poor housing, social deprivation, high levels of crime, environmental pollution and industrial dereliction
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Re branding
This is a way or ways in which a place is redeveloped and marketed so that it gains a new identity
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Regeneration
Is a long term process involving redevelopment and the use of social, economical and environmental action to reverse urban decline and create sustainable communities
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Urban
an urban area is the region surrounding a city
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Megacity
A city or urban agglomeration with a population of more than 10 million people
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Metacity
A conurbation with more than 20 million people
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Urban growth
An increase in the number of urban dwellers
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Urbanization
An increase in the proportion of a country's population that lives in towns an cities
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Urban sprawl
The spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside
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Millionaire city
A city with over a million inhabitants
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World city
A city that is a major centre for finance, trade, business, culture, science information gathering and mass media
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Natural Increase
The difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths during the year
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Fertility rate
The number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years
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Birth rate
Birth per 100 women, categorized according to a specific composition of mothers in the population
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Death rate
The ratio of deaths of the population of a particular area or during a particular period of time, usually calculated as the number of deaths per 1000 people per year
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Natural population growth
Urban areas tend to have younger age profile. It is young adults who are most likely to migrate from rural to urban
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Decentralisation
The movement of people from large urban areas into smaller urban areas or into rural areas. thereby leapfrogging the rural-urban fringe
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Homogenisation
When cities or towns become indistict from one another
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Edge city
Self contained settlements that have developed beyond the original city boundary
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Fragmentation
Cities are more ethnically diverse, but social and cultural inequalities and segregation are more common
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Globalization
Shops, services and business are global brands and companies, rather than local
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Simulation
Artchitecture becomes an expression of art in PMWC's and so buildings often simulate heritage or other famous buildings/places
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Fortification
Security is a key concept in PMWC's, so fortress landscapes are often common
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Beautification
Architecture is more an expression of art than function in PMWC's
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Information
PMWC's are dominated by the service an knowledge economies
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Privatisation
Cities are becoming more privately owned
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Economic inequality
the difference between levels of living standards
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Economically inactive people
Those not in work an not seeking work nor available for work
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Living wage
An hourly rate set independently and updated annually based on the cost of living in the UK
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Special economic zones
A designated area within a country that has favorable economic regulations to encourage investment
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Cultural diversity
The existance of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within society
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Dispora
A group of people with a similar heritage or homeland who have settled eleswhere in the world
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Social segregation
When groups of people live apart from the larger population
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Urban social exclusion
Economic and social problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation
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Well-being
What makes a good place to live - sociability, access, activities, image
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Identity
How is place important to you - How does place define your identity - Local, regional and national
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Belonging
What does it mean to belong to a place - What influences the feeling of belonging - Community spirit, inclusivity
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Urbanization
The process in by which places and people become more urban
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Suburbanisation
People move from congested city centers to the margins of the urban areas.
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Counterurbanisation
The movement of people to dormitory settlements and commuter town
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Urban regeneration
Attempts by government and key stakeholders trigger the movement of people back into urban areas.
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deindustrialization
heavy losses in manufacturing jobs in British cities
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decentralisation
the outward movement of people and activities from established centers
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Urban form
Refers to the size, shape, density and organisation of urban areas
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Economic inequality
Is the wealth gap between rich and poor
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Multiple deprivation
The lagging behind in a number of related aspects of life, such as employment, housing and services
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Social segregation
The spatial concentration of the wealthy and the poor
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

hills, mountains, coasts ect

Back

Physical landscape

Card 3

Front

For example Suffolk's, thatched cottages or Yorkshire's gritstone buildings

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Many large civic buildings in NW England date from wealthy Victorian industrial past

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Churches, Mosques, Synagogues form the heart of many places

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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