Texture - Polyphonic (contrapuntal)
- Parts interweave, different melodies together.
Texture - Imitation
- Where on instrument or voice copies another within the texture. Sometimes only the first few notes are the same.
Texture - Unison
All parts identical. Single melody line.
Texture - Octaves
Slightly differentfrom unison, where parts are a noctabe apart
Texture - Melody and Accompaniment
- As it sounds. The texture features a melody with everything else acting as an accompaniment.
- Parts move in harmony together, or melody with accompaniment
- Where there is a spatial echo effect (e.g. trumpets over there echo horns over here)
Texture - Single Melody Line
- One solo melody instrument or voice with no accompaniment.
Texture - Canon
- Where one instrument or voice copies another exactly shorts after and overlaps (like a 'round). Staggered entries.
Intervals - Major/Minor 2nd
Intervals - Major/Minor 3rd
Intervals - Perfect 4th
Intervals - Perfect 5th
Intervals - Major/Minor 6th
Intervals - Major/Minor 7th
Intervals - Octave
Melodic Movement - Conjunct
- Melody moves up and down mainly by step (neighbouring notes).
Melodic Movement - Disjunct
- Melody contains many leaps.
Melodic Movement - Triadic
- Using 3 notes of a common chord (e.g. a melody that starts C, E, G...)
Melodic Movement - Arpeggio
- Chord notes played one after another ('broken chord').
Melodic Movement - Scalic
- Melody based on a scale: series of notes going up or down stepwise.
1. Chromatic scale - using all the notes.
2. Major scale - bright and happy sounding.
3. Minor scale - sad sounding.
4. Whole-tone scale - sounds 'dreamy'. - e.g. C D E F# G# A#
5. Pentatonic scale - set of 5 notes like the keyboard black notes.
6. Modal - scaled of ancient music and some world folk music (e.g. Dorian, Aeolian).
- Appogiatura - a notes which 'leans' on to a main note of the melody.
- Acciaccuatura - a 'crushed' note - extremly quick.
- Trill - rapid alternation of note and note above.
- Turn - note, note above, note, note below, note.
- Mordent - quick 'shake' - not, note above, note.
- Pitch-bend - Blue note: flattened 3rd of 5th or 7th (usually 3rd) in the melody to give it a 'Bluesy' feel.
- Ostinato - continous repetition of a short pattern.
- Ground bass - constantly repeating bass line in early music (17th century).
- Riff - short, repetitive pattern in jazz or pop styles.
- Sequence - pattern in the melody repeated at a different pitch going up (ascending) or down (descending).
- Inversion - melodic pattern played 'upside down' from original.
- Augmentation - melodic pattern with note - values doubled from original.
- Diminution - melodic pattern with note - values halved from original.
- Descant - part snug over the top of melody.
- Blues notes - used in blues music.
- Improvisation - when a musician invents new music on the spot
- Legato - notes smoothly joined.
- Staccato - notes are short and detached.
- Slur - curved line above or below the note head showng it should be played smoothly together.
- Phrasing - a curved line is used to show which notes are to be played as a musical phrase. A simple way to think of this is that a singer would not breath in the middle of a phrasee, they would breathe between phrases.