GCSE MUSIC - TEXTURE AND MELODY

- Texture types

- Intervals

- Melodic movement

- Ornamentation

- Harmonic terms to apply to melody

- Phrasing and articulation

- Melodic features

- Melodic dictation

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Texture - Polyphonic (contrapuntal)

  • Parts interweave, different melodies together. 
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Texture - Imitation

  • Where on instrument or voice copies another within the texture. Sometimes only the first few notes are the same.
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Texture - Unison

All parts identical. Single melody line.

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Texture - Octaves

Slightly differentfrom unison, where parts are a noctabe apart

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Texture - Melody and Accompaniment

  • As it sounds. The texture features a melody with everything else acting as an accompaniment.
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Homophonic/Homophony

  • Parts move in harmony together, or melody with accompaniment
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Antiphony/Antiphonal

  • Where there is a spatial echo effect (e.g. trumpets over there echo horns over here)
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Texture - Single Melody Line

  • One solo melody instrument or voice with no accompaniment.
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Texture - Canon

  • Where one instrument or voice copies another exactly shorts after and overlaps (like a 'round). Staggered entries.
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Intervals - Major/Minor 2nd

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Intervals - Major/Minor 3rd

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Intervals - Perfect 4th

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Intervals - Perfect 5th

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Intervals - Major/Minor 6th

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Intervals - Major/Minor 7th

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Intervals - Octave

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Melodic Movement - Conjunct

  • Melody moves up and down mainly by step (neighbouring notes).
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Melodic Movement - Disjunct

  • Melody contains many leaps.
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Melodic Movement - Triadic

  • Using 3 notes of a common chord (e.g. a melody that starts C, E, G...)
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Melodic Movement - Arpeggio

  • Chord notes played one after another ('broken chord').
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Melodic Movement - Scalic

  • Melody based on a scale: series of notes going up or down stepwise.

1. Chromatic scale - using all the notes.

2. Major scale - bright and happy sounding.

3. Minor scale - sad sounding.

4. Whole-tone scale - sounds 'dreamy'. - e.g. C D E F# G# A#

5. Pentatonic scale - set of 5 notes like the keyboard black notes.

6. Modal - scaled of ancient music and some world folk music (e.g. Dorian, Aeolian).

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Ornamentation

  • Appogiatura - a notes which 'leans' on to a main note of the melody.
  • Acciaccuatura - a 'crushed' note - extremly quick.
  • Trill - rapid alternation of note and note above.
  • Turn - note, note above, note, note below, note.
  • Mordent - quick 'shake' - not, note above, note.
  • Pitch-bend - Blue note: flattened 3rd of 5th or 7th (usually 3rd) in the melody to give it a 'Bluesy' feel.
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Melodic Devices

  • Ostinato - continous repetition of a short pattern.
  • Ground bass - constantly repeating bass line in early music (17th century).
  • Riff - short, repetitive pattern in jazz or pop styles.
  • Sequence - pattern in the melody repeated at a different pitch going up (ascending) or down (descending).
  • Inversion - melodic pattern played 'upside down' from original.
  • Augmentation - melodic pattern with note - values doubled from original.
  • Diminution - melodic pattern with note - values halved from original.
  • Descant - part snug over the top of melody.
  • Blues notes - used in blues music.
  • Improvisation - when a musician invents new music on the spot
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Articulation

  • Legato - notes smoothly joined.
  • Staccato - notes are short and detached.
  • Slur - curved line above or below the note head showng it should be played smoothly together.
  • Phrasing - a curved line is used to show which notes are to be played as a musical phrase. A simple way to think of this is that a singer would not breath in the middle of a phrasee, they would breathe between phrases.
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Comments

hannahbot123

These are brilliant, but would work so much better as flashcards.

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