Food Preparation & Nutrition

  • Created by: Jozi12334
  • Created on: 18-03-18 11:33

Keeping Food Safe

  • Food Poisoning
  • Shopping For Food
  • Storing Food
  • Preparing Food ~ Personal & Kitchen Hygine
  • Cooking Food
  • Rehating Food
  • Safty in the Kitchen
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Food Poisoning

It is essential that standards of hygine are high at every stage of handling food; overwise there is a danger of food poisoning.

Food poisoning can cause anything from a mild headache to death.

The most common symptoms of food poisoning are stomach ache, diarrhoea and vomiting.

It can start within an hour of eating unfit food or take up to 5 days to develop.

Food poisoning is caused by staphylococcus, listeria, clostridum and E coli.

For bacteria to increase to large number they have to have the right conditions; warmth, moisture, food and time to grow.

Temperature control is realy important to keep our food safe. Food poisoning bacteria multipy best between 5 and 63*c. This is known best as the danger zone. Most bacteria are killed at temperatures over 70*c and bacteria do not grow, or grow very slowly, below 5*c

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Shopping For Food

It is extremly important to;

  • Cheack date marks. Do not buy out of date food.
  • Pack raw foods separatley from cooked foods to avoid cross-contamination.
  • Chilled and frozen foods should be packed in an insulated cool bag to keep at a cold temperature.
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Storing Food

It is extermily important to;

  • Ensure cupboards are clean and dry.
  • Ensure the fridge is kept at 3-5*c. A fridge thermometer should be used to check this. At a higher temperature than this bacteria will breed.
  • Do not put hot food in the fridge as this will raise the tempature.
  • Do not overfill the fridge, as this means cool air can't circulate.
  • Never store raw food above cooked, as blood and liquids can drip onto foods beeath.
  • Clean the fridge regularly, as dirt and grim can get into the food.
  • Kepp food covered and clean. This stops the food from drying out and avoids cross-contamination.
  • Check the date codes on food. It is dangerous to use foods after their uses-by date. A best-before date indicates when food is at its best quality.
  • A freezer needs to be kept at -18*c or below and be defrosted regualry.
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Preparing Food

Personal Hygine;

  •  Wash hands before and after working with food.
  • Wear a clean apron.
  • Tie long hair back and remove all jewllery.
  • Do not work with food if ill - bacteria from diseases can cause food poisoning.
  • Do not cough or sneeze near food.
  • Cover cuts with a plaster - blue is best as it can be easily spotted if fallen into food.

Kitchen Hygine;

  • Food preperation surfaces must be kept clean when preparing food. Use antibacterial spray.
  • Keep raw and cooked foods apart to avoid cross-contamination.
  • Use seprate knives and boards for raw and cooked foods.
  • Use clean dishcloths and tea towles.
  • Put food waste in the bin and empty regualry.
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Cooking Food

Ensure you;

  • Cook foods to over 72*c - as you will kill most of the dangerous bacteria. Use a food probe to check the temperatures at the centre of cooked foods.
  • Follow the cooking instructions, using suggested cooking teperatures and times.
  • Cover cooked food to prevent pests getting near food and contaminating it.
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Reheating Food

Ensure you;

  • Cool food quickly if you want to reheat it later.
  • Divide the food into smaller portions, then leave in a cool dry place for up to 90 minutes.
  • Once cool, refridgerate of freeze.
  • Reheat food only once, by cooking it to 72*c for at least 2 mintues.
  • If using a microwave to reheat, turn or stir the food to avoid cold spots.
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Saftey in the Kitchen

The kitchen is usally the most dangerous room in the house. Accidents can happen easily if people become careless. Here are some rules to follow;

  • Never allow pan handles to stick out over the edge of the cooker.
  • Turn hobs and ovens of after use.
  • Mop up any spills straight away to avoid slipping.
  • Do not have curtains near the cooker.
  • Use oven gloves to remove hot dishes from the oven and do not leave on the cooker.
  • Keep cleaning substances out of children's reach.
  • Do not leave matches within the reach of children.
  • Keep sharp knives in a drawer or kitchen block and out of the reach of children.
  • Do not leave metal spoons in hot pans.
  • Never leave a chip or any pan unattened.
  • Check for frayed wires and damaged plugs on electrical appliences.
  • Keep electrical equipment away form water.
  • Never touch electrical equipment with wet hands.
  • Always follow the manufacturers instructions when using electrical appliances.
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Food For A Healthy Life

  • The balance of good health.
  • The 'Eatwell plate'.
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The Balance of Good Health

The goverenment suggests 8 guidlines for a healthy diet. Following these guidlines as far as we can will help us feel well, look good and enjoy.

The guidlines are;

  • Cut down on saturated fat.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Eat more fish.
  • Do not skip breakfast.
  • Enjoy your food.
  • Eat a variety of different foods.
  • Eat the right amount to be a healthy weight.
  • If you drink alcohol, keep within senible limits.
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The Eatwell Plate

The 'Eatwell plate' shows the different types and proportions of foods which make up a healthy diet. The proportions are important; Plenty of starchy foods, like bread and potatoes.Plenty of fruit and  vegtables. Small amounts of other foods and not too many faty or sugary foods                     (

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  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Carbohydrates
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals & trace elemants
  • Water
  • Summary
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Food is made up of different nutrients. We need these nutrients for body growth, repair, energy, warmth and protection from disease. If we do not eat enough nutrients we could lose weight, become ill or even starve. If we are lacking in particular nutrients we may show signs of a deficiency. If we eat too many nutrients or too much of the wrong sort of nutrientm, we could put on weight and become obese. Every nutrient carries out a different function and many of them depend on each other to work properly. It is therefore vital to eat an adequate amount of each of the nutrients.

There are 5 main groups of nutrients. These 5 groups can be divided into 2 groups.

Macronutrients ~ are needed by the body in large amounts. These are things like Proteins, Fats and Carbohhydrates.

Micronutrients ~ are needed by the body in small amounts. These nutriants are vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

In addition to these nutrients the body also needs water and fibre.

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Every cell in the body contains protein. Protein is needed by the body for growth; repair of body cells and as a secandry source of energy.

Proteins are made up of similar units called amino acids. There are 20 amino acids. When mixed togather in different numbers and combinatios they make different proteins.

Essential and Non- essential amino acids;

Of these 20 amino acids, 11 can be made by the body from the p[rotein foods we eat. They are therefore called non0essential amino acids and therefore said to have a low biological value (LBV). These are alanine, arginine, asparagine, asparic acid, cystenine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine and tyrosine.

Ther other 9 have to be provided ready made by the protein food we eat. They are called the essential amino acids as the body can not make these and are said to have a high biological value (HBV). These are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.

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Meat, fish, eggs milk and cheese. These are all HBV proteins as they contain all the 9 essential amino acids.


Rice, pasta, wheat, beans, pulses, nuts and seeds. These are all LBV proteins as they do not contain all the 9 essential amino acids. The exception to this rule is soya beans. This is a plant food that does contain all the 9 essential amino acids and therefore is classed as a HBV.

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"New Proteins"

 Food scientists have been searching for alternative sources of protein top feed a growing world population. These are some of the sources that have been identified.

Mycoprotein (quorn) ~ is a product made from a tiny plant similar to a mushroom.

TVP (textured vegtable protein) ~ is a meat replacment made from soya beans.

Sprouting Seeds ~ Bean sprouts.

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Complementary Proteins

It is possible to get allthe essential amino acids we need by just eating LBV proteins. You just have to eat a mixture of these proteins as what is missing in one of the plant foods may not be the missing amino acid in a different plant food. For example if you eat beans on toast, the amino acid missing is the protein in bread is present in the baked beans and vice versa. So beans on toast  is now a HBV meal.

The advantages of mixing proteins within a meal are it;

  • Ensures maximum intake of indispensable amino acids.
  • Saves money -LBV porteins are less exspensive.
  • Provides a more varied deit.
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Dietary Refrance Values ~ Protein

Everyone needs to eat foods which cointain protein every day.

Babies, children and teenagers are still growing and therefore need more protein.

Adults still need protein to help their hair and finger nails grow and for the body to repair but not as much.

If too little protein is eaten;

  • Children may stop growing or grow slowly.
  • Adults may lose body fat and muscle.
  • You may have low energy levels.
  • Hair and skin becomes dry.
  • You catch infections more easily.
  • Cuts and bruises may be slow to heal.
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