Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9)

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What is a System?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- A system is a complex whole, the component parts of which are arranged for a common purpose

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What is the System Development Life Cycle?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- A sequence of activities which are performed when a system is analysed, designed and implemented

- It is cyclic because once a system has been built then it will be regularly looked at to see if any improvements need to be made

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are the Main Tasks Involved in System Investigation?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Interviews -> Shows how a particular department works and the issues that it is having with the current system but is time consuming

- Observations -> Sit with someone and observe what they do to understand the information flows and processes

- Inspection of Records -> Can understand what information there is and the way it is communicated among departments or among the organisation and suppliers and customers

- Questionnaires -> Collect information about an organisation by sticking to the important points

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are the Advantages and Disadvantages to each of the Previous Tasks?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Interviews -> Time consuming

- Observations -> Good way of learning what to do however things could be easily forgotten

- Inspection of Records -> Good for finding out how information is held and how it is communicated

- Questionnaires -> Good for collecting information from a huge group of people (take up less staff time) however people forget to fill them in, and those who do may not fully understand all of the questions

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What Should be Considered when Creating Questionnaires?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Precisely worded questions

- Make sure that they don't have to put their names on the questionnaires because otherwise they may not give their honest opinion

- General questions to start with and then go onto more detailed questions

- Try not to include leading questions and add the question 'Is there anything I have missed that you think I ought to know about?' at the end

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What is Meant by the terms Feasibility and Feasibility Report?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Feasibility -> Initial investigation to look at the probability of being able to create a new system with aims and objectives at reasonable cost (involves a fact find, implication research, cost v benefits, etc.)

- Feasibility Report -> Where the results are summarised and the senior managers assess the project's feasibility based on this report

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What Should be Included in a Feasibility Report?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- User Requirements

- Details of existing hardware and software

- Scope of the current system

- Data processing functions and processes

- List of problems with the current system

- Cost v Benefit analysis of the new system

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What does Analysis Normally Involve?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Understanding the current system

- Understanding the new system

- Analysing lots of different user requirements

- Using tools and techniques to show the solution in a logical way

- Creating a specification

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are the Tools and Techniques Used to Understand a System?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Data Flow Diagrams - Describe a system and focus on inputs, processes and outputs (examples of uses: during system investigation to record findings, during system design to show how the new system would work and during the outline of the specifications

Decision Tables - Shows actions to be undertaken when specific conditions occur -> Advantages: Easy to understand, standard layout, show cause and effect

Systems Diagrams - Show how a system works (inputs processes and outputs) through pictures

Entity Relationship Models - Describes a system as a set of data entities with relationships between them

Entity Relationship Diagrams - They focus on the important components of the system and the relationships of these components

Data dictionaries - A centralised collection of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, etc., used mainly in database design to ensure consistency

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What does System Design Usually Involve?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Production of the specification for the hardware and software

- Design of data and file structures

- Design of input and output procedures

- Design of information systems

- Design of networks and transmission problems

- Personnel issues

- Design of security processes and procedures

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What will Implementation Usually Involve?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Obtaining and installing hardware and software and software training

- Altering the current software

- Creating programming code

- Installing software on operational hardware

- Creating framework for databases

- Training the users

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What does Testing Usually Involve?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Testing at very detailed levels

- Testing at a higher level

- Testing at a systems level

- Testing every field

- Testing the system with real-life data

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are the Different Types of Changeover Strategies?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Direct Changeover - Stop using the old system one day and start using the new one another day (risky but needs fewer resources)

Parallel Changeovers - Old system is run alongside the new system (reduces the risk however it wastes time and adds to planning needed)

Phased Conversion - Module by module is converted (can deal with issues before going onto the next module however it only suits systems which have separate modules)

Pilot Conversion - Where system is used in a branch at a time and then transferred to others (manageable but takes longer to enrol)

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What Factors are Considered when Choosing a Changeover Method?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Whether there actually is a current system (e.g. if there isn't then a parallel changeover cannot be used)

- Whether the system is cutting edge (parallel changeover or pilot conversion would minimise the problems)

- Whether the system would be enrolled in many locations (pilot conversion)

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What does System Maintenance Involve?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Training all of the potential users

- Creating technical and user documentations

- Establishing help-desk facilities to help the users

- Changing current programs or creating further ones

- Operational issues e.g. poor performance being corrected

- Investigation of system crashes

- Managing interfaces with other systems e.g. Internet and email

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are the Three Types of System Maintenance?(Give Description of each)

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Perfective - Improves the performance of the ICT system by adding features to speed up the system

Adaptive - This is when things change in a business e.g. new laws would require the system to be changed

Corrective - Correcting faults or bugs which didn't appear during the testing stage

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are Some of the Maintenance Issues?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Identification of errors

- Security problems

- Changes in the business environment

- Dissatisfaction with hardware and software

- Updating system

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What is Included in a User Documentation and a Technical Documentation?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

User Documentation -> Minimum hardware and software requirements, how to load software, how to do certain functions, how to save and print, FAQs, how to cope with error messages and troubleshooting and how to perform back ups

Technical Documentation -> Copy of the spec, all diagrams used to show the system, data dictionary, macro designs, spreadsheet formulae or program listings, screen layout designs, UI designs and a test plan

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What does the Evaluation and Review Usually Involve?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

- Ensuring that the new system fully meets the user requirements

- Assessing how happy the clients are

- Establishing a review cycle

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What are Tools for Gathering Information for the Evaluation Report?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Quantitative Test - e.g. satisfaction on a scale of 1-10 and then you can work out the average, etc.

Error Logging Interviews - All calls to the help-desks are logged

Questionnaires - Give honest opinions if they are allowed to be anonymous

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

What Procedures can be undertaken to Reduce the Post-implementation Cost?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Training Costs -> Can't really reduce this cost

Modification Costs -> Improved identification of user requirements

Help-desk and Other Support Costs -> Complete training and easy to use software

Need to Purchase Additional Hardware -> Systems should be created with additional capacity

Correction of Bugs -> Thorough testing

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Key Word: What is the Definition of Fact Finding?

Key Word: What is the Definition of Feasibility Study?

Key Word: What is the Definition of a Context Diagram?

Key Word: What is the Definition of a Data Flow Diagram?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Fact Finding -> Initial investigation of a system before a feasibility study is carried out

Feasibility Study -> A study carried out before a new ICT system is developed to see whether a new system can be developed at an acceptable cost to realise user benefits

Context Diagram -> Diagram which represents a system as a single DFD process

Data Flow Diagram -> Shows the flow, storage and processing of data in a system

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Key Word: What is the Definition of an Entity?

Key Word: What is the Definition of an Attribute?

Key Word: What is the Definition of a Data Dictionary?

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Flashcards for the Main Parts of the SDLC (Topic 9

Entity -> An object of the real world that is relevant to an ICT system, e.g. a place, object, person, customer, invoice, product, course, etc.

Attribute -> A single item of data which represents a fact about an entity. An attribute can be thought of as something which adds further detail/information to the entity.

Data Dictionary -> A centralised collection of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, etc., used mainly in database design to ensure consistency

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