Topic 2: The Internet
What is the Internet, FTP and E-Commerce
The internet is a huge group of networks joined together
FTP is file transfer protocol is used to transmit any type of file by a process which bunches the data into packages. This is sent and when received the receiving system checks the package has no errors.
E-Commerce is the use of the internet to sell goods online. The main requirements are:
- Trained staff to create and maintain the site
- Electronic catalogue
- Search facility
- Methods of payment
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A major advantage to a company of using a network is that the users can access all the same database, therefore having to avoid replicating all the data. Therefore, by developing the online database, everyone can easily update the database and everyone will have this updated database.
A search engine will store information about all the webpages, a web browser called a web crawler automatically follows all links it can find and then each webpage it comes across is analysed for key words to see how it should be indexed, which is then stored in a database. Search engines rank the pages by relevance, popularity, authoritative sites and sometimes when companies pay.
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AND: If you type a phrase such as “USA and Flag” you will find documents with both the words ‘USA’ and ‘Flag’ in so for example, “USA flag meaning” would come up but not “USA Holidays
OR: If you type a phrase such as “USA or Flag” you will find documents with the word USA, documents with the word Flag and documents with both words.
NOT: If you type a phrase such as “USA not Flag” you will find documents and webpages about USA but you will not find anything about containing “flag”
SEARCHING FOR AN EXACT MATCH OR FOR AN EXACT QUOTATION: If you want an exact match or an exact quotation, just put the words or the quotation in quotation marks like these: “Recipes for a chocolate cake” or “I have a dream”
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Distributed computing, advantages, disadvantages and the seti project
Distributed computing is where a series of computers are networked together and they each work on solving the same problem. Each computer shares data, processing storage and bandwidth in order to solve a single problem.
The SETI (Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence) project
The purpose of the SETI project is to search for intelligent life outside the Earth and to do this a radio telescope is used. The radio telescopes pick up signals from outer space. If the signal was confined to a narrow range of frequencies, this would provide evidence of extra-terrestrial life.
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Cable access to the internet and dialup modem
CABLE ACCESS TO THE INTERNET
There are two ways of connecting to the internet in the UK, dialup and broadband.
For some people in this country and in many other countries, slow dialup modem connection is common
DIALUP MODEMS (DM)
Using DM is very slow and limits its’ use. Downloads can take longer than broadband by up to an hour using DM. They convert signals into a series of sounds which are passed along a telephone line. This is converted back to a digital signal, which the computer can understand.
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Broadband with the Advantages and Disadvantages
It gives a much faster access and transfer speeds to the internet and allows you to watch on-line video, download files quickly, listen to online radio ,watch TV programmes and son
Fast download times
Search engines quicker
No time wasted to connect
Web cams can be used
Cheap phone calls can be made online
Broadband may not be available where you live
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Mobile access to the internet
Many people have to travel around as part of their work, so they need to have mobile access to their e-mails and the Internet. There are many devices that offer mobile access to the Internet such as mobile phones and laptop computers.
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Moral, social and ethical issues associated with the internet
These moral issues include: deliberately setting up websites containing incorrect information, bullying, inappropriate websites, spreading rumours
These ethical issues include: plagiarism, sending spam, companies monitoring staff use of internet, using somebody’s internet connection without permission, distorting reality.
These social issues include: privacy issues, gambling addictions, obesity, addiction to computer games, shops having to close due to e-commerce.
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Ownership and control of the internet, offensive material and censorship
OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL
The Internet is for everybody and no-one actually owns it. There is little control over the content of the material on the Internet, although some governments have started to control what can be seen on it. This means that unless special software is used, children can easily gain access to pornographic or violent images.
There are a lot of offensive and illegal images/video on the internet. There are many laws control production and distribution of this but it comes from other countries where it is not illegal. This means there is not much that can be done to solve this.
OFFENSIVE MATERIAL AND CENSORSHIP
Many countries in the world are not democratic and the leaders of these places often don’t allow other countries’ material in.