Events in the 1960's.

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Greensboro.

  • WHEN AND WHERE?
    • Sit-ins, Greensboro, North Carolina, Feb 1961.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • Civil rights movement was too slow.
    • Forcing through equality and taking a stand.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • No organisations were involved.
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • 4 black college students refused to leave a cafe spontaneously.
    • Sat in white area of a segregated cafe.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • 70,000 students joined sit-ins.
    • Inspired the creation of the SNCC.
    • MLK supported sit-ins and joined them.
    • Cafe ended up closing.
    • Desegregated cafes by 1961.
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Freedom Rides.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • Freedom Rides, Southern states, 1961.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • Trying to create a crisis and gain publicity.
    • Effecting the country's image.
    • Government forced to respond.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • CORE.
    • SCLC.
    • SNCC.
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • Small integrated groups travelled on buses, testing Supreme Court rulings against desegregation.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • Gained publicity and brought groups together,
    • Got attacked by racists in Alabama.
    • Buses did desegregate.
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Albany Movement.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • Albany Movement, Georgia, 1961-62.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • Trying to integrate.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • SCLC
    • NAACP
    • Local organisations.
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • Boycotting white businesses and sit-ins.
    • Students from state college involved in sit-ins.
    • MLK lead a march - made agreements with authorities but they went back on their word.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • More black people allowed to vote and some desegregation.
    • Black community weren't as afraid of ***********.
    • Lots of resegregation and closing of black areas.
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Birmingham.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • Birmingham, Alabama, 1963.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • Competing organisations 
    • Whites banned lots of things eg. music, for blacks.
    • Very racist city with lots of extremism.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • SCLC
    • SNCC
    • NAACP
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • Demonstrations turned violent by authorities.
    • SCLC had planned actions, couldn't recruit anyone and couldn't follow through.
    • MLK arrested.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • Attention recieved because of violence from the media and authorities.
    • Little change within the city.
    • Shown that desegregation was important.
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March on Washington.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • March on Washington, August 1963.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • Aimed to encourage the passage of the civil rights bill.
    • Improve unemployment.
    • Maintain morale in a non-violent protest.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • SCLC
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • 1/4 million marchers attended (1/4 of them were white)
    • "I have a dream" speech.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • Success
    • Gained media attention.
    • Organisations colaborated.
    • Emotional impact.
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Freedom Summer.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • Freedom Summer, Mississippi 1961-64.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • 5.2% blacks could vote.
    • Needed a way of pushing for the vote.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • SNCC
    • MFDP
    • NAACP
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • Freedom vote.
    • Mock election in 1963 publicity stunt.
    • 3 people were killed - 2 of them white.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • Gained media attention.
    • Moved away from peaceful protests.
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St. Augustine.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • St. Augustine, Florida, Spring 1964.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • King was recieving death threats from the KKK.
    • White leaders refused to negotiate.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • SCLC
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • Integrated group of 7, 'swim-in' at a motel pool.
    • Motel owner poured gallons of pool cleaning chemicals into the pool.
    • Policeman had to drag them out.
    • Klansmen attacked police who tried to protect marchers.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • After Klansmen picketed and fire-bombed desegregated areas, most of St. Augustine re-segregated.
    • King was keen to get out of St. Augustine.
    • SCLC failed to get support from black leaders.
    • Extreme violence was significant in getting the Civil Rights bill through.
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Selma.

  • WHERE AND WHEN?
    • Selma, Alabama, 1965.
  • WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
    • Everything was segregated.
    • White income was 4x more than blacks income.
    • Half the population was black.
    • Violent city.
  • WHICH ORGANISATIONS WERE INVOLVED?
    • SCLC & SNCC
    • MLK & Jim Clark (sherrif)
  • HOW DID EVENTS TAKE PLACE?
    • Troopers shot a black youth who was shielding his mother from a beath.
    • Whites throwing venemous snakes at blacks.
    • Voting rights.
    • Bloody Sunday.
  • RESULTS: SUCCESS AND SIGNIFICANCE.
    • Publicity.
    • King leaves because of the violence.
    • Lead to the voting rights act being passed.
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