TRANSPORT AND LEISURE

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  • TRANSPORT
    • CARS
      • 1919-1939 car ownership 100,000 to 2 million
        • 1939: 1.4m jobs depended on motor industry
      • working class couldn't afford cars
        • bicycle sales increased
          • 1929-1939 6 to 10 million
      • cars had big effect
        • shown by driving tests in 1934
        • increased consumer habits
          • weekly shops with more products
            • increased sale of fridges etc.
            • 1964 1st out of town supermarket ASDA - 1,000 parking spaces
    • TRANSPORT AND LEISURE
      • TOURISM
        • 1938 holiday pay act = more free time
          • before 1.5/18.5m workers had paid holiday
          • March 1938; 7.75m workers benefitted
          • amount of paid leave increased in 1960/70s
            • 1960: 2 weeks paid
            • 1975: 3 weeks
            • 1979: 4 weeks
          • 1951-1990 no. who went away for 4 consecutive nights doubled
        • PRE WAR HOLIDAYS
          • seaside visits in the UK was the most popular
          • better off went to Tynemouth rather than Whitley Bay
          • popular with working class
            • in 1930's blackpool 7m WC visitors annually
        • BUTLINS
          • first camp opened in 1937 Skegness
          • by 1939 200 camps - 30,000 visitors
          • cheap option for poor families
          • also opened up idea of caravan holidays
            • opened up places e.g. devon cornwall
              • previously restricted to wealthy few (2nd homes)
        • POST WAR HOLIDAYS
          • 'home or away'
            • by 1951: 25m on holiday in UK and 2 m abroad
            • 1971: 34m vs 7m abroad
          • more disposable income
            • foreign holidays, caravans and butlins continued
          • numbers heading abroad increased rapidly mid 1970's
            • cheap oversea package tour holidays
          • abroad holidays had large effect
            • wine consumption doubled in 60/70's
            • yes vote in 1975 referendum
              • stay in EEC
      • SPORT
        • IMPACT OF TV
          • BEFORE
            • radio and national press interest in 'national sports'
              • e.g. football and cricket
            • early BBC radio coverage in favour of social elite events
              • Grand National
              • Oxford-Cambridge boat race
          • AFTER
            • power of TV captured intense emotion
              • e.g. 1948 London Olympics
            • impact was limited
              • low sales of TV sets
              • small broadcast radius
                • e.g. 25 miles around Alexander Palace NL
            • more broadcasting = less stadium attendence
        • FOOTBALL
          • rise of mass transport and communication = national league
            • 1920-22 3 national divisions created
            • no. clubs affiliated with FA increased
              • 1910: 17,900
              • 1967: 30,800
              • 1986: 41,000
          • ticket sales rose but then declined due to TV
            • attendance 1914-1938
              • 23,000 to 31,000 at top flight football matches
            • ticket sales 1948: 41.2m
              • 1969: 29.6m 1979: 24.6m
          • rise of football hooligans
            • influenced decreasing trend
              • older relatives stayed at home so youth had no constraints
              • british rail cancelled 'soccer specials'
          • TV had a big influence
            • rise of colour, multi cameras and slow motion
              • increased viewer enjoyment in 1960's
            • 32 million viewers saw England win 1966 world cup
        • VIEWING HABITS
          • higher fees paid to screen sport events
            • huge increase in advertising money in sport
              • 1966 - £1m
              • 1976 - £16m
              • 1983 - £100m
          • football wages were capped
            • unfair for talented players
            • ticket prices were low
            • threats of strikes by PFA led to this being scrapped
        • GENDER
          • increase in participation 1961-1979
            • men: 9% to 30%
            • women: 6% to 17%
              • lower for women in lower class and married
          • reinforced traditional gender images
    • PLANES
      • world war advancement made planes a commercial option
      • 1920/30's expensive
        • only used  by rich business men
      • scheduled internal flights popular after 1930's
        • introduced new means of travel for everyone
        • aided by nationalisation of civil aviation 1946
      • 1960's emergence of package hoidays
        • abroad holidays on mass scale e.g. spain and greece
        • showed prosperity of working class
    • TRAINS
      • growth of railways encourged ribbon development
        • e.g. growth of Metro Land
          • suburbs in North London linked to centre via metropolitan railway
      • 1948 big four rail companies nationalised
        • make British railway
      • Beeching Reports 1963
        • recommend closure of 1/2 stations + 1/3 tracks
          • closure accelerated mid 1960's
          • communities had no public transport
            • increased demand for cars

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