Evaluating MSM of memory

Miller (STM Capacity)

  •  Proved that STM had a capacity of 5-9 items using the digit span technique with immediate serial recall.
  •  Read aloud a digit string to pps, starting with 3 numbers, increasing each time up to 11. (Changed the numbers to prevent practice).
  • pps repeated back (verbally) the digit string they just heard in the correct order. 
  • Miller found that STM capacity ranged between 5-9 items - supporting the STM capacity.

AO2 - Lab exp (all strengths & weaknesses specific to the study)


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Miller (STM Capacity)

  • Proved that STM had a capacity of 5-9 items using the digit span technique with immediate serial recall. 
  • Read aloud a digit string to pps, starting with 3 numbers, increasing each time up to 11. (Changed the numbers to prevent practice). 
  • pps repeated back (verbally) the digit string they just heard in the correct order. 
  • Miller found that STM capacity ranged between 5-9 items - supporting the STM capacity. 
  • AO2 - Lab exp (all strengths & weaknesses specific to the study)
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Bahrick (LTM Duration)

  • Proved that duration of LTM lasted up to a lifetime using the high school year book photographs. 
  • (longitudinal) Graduates from a high school over a 50yr period. 
  • Split graduates into two groups to test recall duration. 
  • Recall group - identified people in photographs 
  • Recognition group - matched names to the faces. <—This group were best at recalling names.
  • Recog: After 14yrs - 90% accurate - 60% accurate after 47yrs
  • Recall: 60% accurate after 7yrs - 20% accurate after 47yrs
  • Showing LTM duration is long.
  • AO2 - High eco val (real life) 

    AO2 - 47yrs might be an early cut off point to represent a lifetime of memory - doesn’t consider the natural decline of memory with age.

     

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Peterson & Peterson (STM Duration)

  •  Proved that STM duration was no longer than 30 seconds.
  •  Quickly showed pps consonant trigrams. 
  •  pps were asked to count backwards in 3’s from desired number (prevent rehearsal).
  • Pete&Pete asked them to recall trigram after 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 seconds.
  • Found that after 3secs recall v good (80% of trigrams remembered). After 18secs fewer than 10% were remembered.
  • Therefore STM duration isn’t much longer than 18 secs.

AO2 - Lab exp (all strengths & weaknesses specific to the study)


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HM & Clive Wearing - cases of Amnesia (Different s

Had severe brain damage to hippocampus (LTM).

Both lost ability to form new long-term memories.

However STM worked fine.

This provides strong neuropsychological evidence that STM and LTM are different stores in the brain as only LTM was affected.

AO2 - High in eco val, very useful,

AO2 - Ethics

AO2 - sample size of 1 - can’t generalise

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Brain Scans (Distinction between stores)

  •  Activity is shown in hippocampus when LTM tasks are carried out.
  • (Explains why damage to hippocampus causes LTM impairment.)
  • Activity is shown in prefrontal cortex when STM tasks are carried out.
  • Suggesting two different stores - adding validity to MSM.

AO2 - Scientific, objective

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