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Key Terms

Memory Key Terms...

Encoding - Sensory information is encoded into the memory.

Storage - Information stored within memory systems, keeping the information for later use.

Retrieval - the ability to recover information from the storage system.

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Multi store model

Atkinson and Shiffrin 1986

1. Information from the environment is recieved by the sensory stores, the information lasts only for seconds.

2. Some of the information in the sensory stores is further processed by the short term memory.

3. Information in the short term memory is transferred into the long term memory by rehearasal.

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If not attended to some of the          Lost via displacement if          Information from the LTM
information is lost.                            no rehearsal.                          is retrieved into the STM.

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STM based on the MSM

Miller - can only remember the magic number, 7+/- 2 chunks of information.

Supports the idea STM has limited capacity.

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Atkinson & Shiffrin - 1 LTM store.
Cohen & Squire - 2 LTM stores.

Declarative knowledge - knowing that
Procedural knowledge - knowing how

Belong to different regions of the brain.

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Evaluation MSM

Multi store model advantages

Strong support for the distinction between LTM and STM from studies on brain damage patients.
Support for the notion that encoding is different in STM and LTM.
Capacity is radically different.
Duration is different.

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Evaluation MSM (2)

Multi store model disadvantages

Must use rehearsal but rarely done in everyday life.
Assumed that STM is encoded by sound and LTM by meaning.
Too simplistic.
Brain damage patients suggest more the one STM store.

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Differences between STM and LTM

Differences between STM and LTM

STM - Recency effect
LTM - Primacy effect

STM - Acoustic coding
LTM - Semantic coding

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Working Memory Model

Working Memory Model
Baddeley & Hitch
1. Central executive - controlling element of the model, the attention system.
2. Articulatory phonological loop - holds acoustic information and it includes the verbal rehearsal loop.
3. Visuo spatial sketch pad - stores and deals with visual and spatial information.

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Working Memory Model Diagram


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Working Memory Model evaluation

Working memory model advantages

Supporting evidence on brain damage patients.
Shallice & Warrington found patient KF had difficulty with auditory information in the STM but not visual, this suggests there are different components of STM like the WM suggests.

There is evidence of the WM in everyday life. 

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Working memory model evaluation (2)

Working memory model disadvantages

Limitations with brain damage patient studies, most are case studies which means they have unique characteristics and arent representative so therefore cant be generalised. This undermines the extent to which we can rely on these studies.
Little is known about the central executive and it tells us little about LTM

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