Englsih Language Change Framework Revision Cards (A2)

Revision cards containing what specific areas to identify in each framework.


Lexical Framework


  • Coinage/Neologism: A new word.
  • Obsolete: When a word is no longer in use.
  • Borrowings/Load: When a word is taken directly from a different language.
  • Affixiation: Prefixes (anti-/post-/pre-) and Suffixes (-ate/-ic/-al)
  • Compounding: When words are joined together (headace, today)
  • Conversion: Where a word class changes to create a new word (To invite, an invite)
  • Blend: When two words merge (brunch)
  • Abbreviation: When a word is shortened (telephone - phone)
  • Accronym: Letters that stand for something (NASA, RADAR)
  • Intitialism: When the initial letters of a word make a word but not said as a word (ATM)
  • Eponyms: Words from names/places (Hoover, Sony)
  • Jargon: Specialised formal or technological terminology.
  • Slang: Informal and colloquial words (reem, worldie)

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Semantic Framework


Extention: The meaning of the word widens.

Narrowing: The meaning shortens.

Pejoration: The meaning becomes increasingly more negative over time

Amerlioration: The meaning becomes increasingly more positive over time.

Broadening: The meaning changes from a restricted semantic field to a larger one.

Figuartive Language: The word 'Crane' refers to a bird. but also building equipment.



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Grammatical Framework


Grammar has changed gradually over the last 1000 years, but since the 17th Century it hasn't changed much since STANDARDISATION.

Inflexions: We have lost a lot of inflexions over the years. We still use some, however not as many. Most nouns now go from singular to plural wit -s. There was much more lexical variation in old English (hand/handa)

Pronouns: Thou/thee/thine have gone except for regional varieties.

Syntax: Word order (subject + object) used to be indentified by the inflexions.

Double Negatives: The double negative used to be acceptable but not since standardisation. At the end of the 20th Century, putting -not at the end of sentences became popularised by media and film.

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Graphological Framework


The Long 'S' has been dropped

Technological advances - photoraphy, print, film, colour etc.

Fonts used

The size of the text

Bold, italicised or under underlined text

Position of the text

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Pragmatical Framework


Think carefully about what each text tells us about life at the time it was written:

  • Culture
  • Poverty
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Transport
  • Technology
  • Religion
  • Family Networks
  • Beliefs
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