Electrons, Bonding and Structure

Key terms and words for Chemistry revision. 

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  • Created by: Parmz
  • Created on: 15-03-13 20:46

First Ionisation Energy

Is the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions. 

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Electron Shielding

Is the repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons. 

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Succesive Ionisation Energies

Are a measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn.

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Are a group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n. Also known as a main energy level. 

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Principal Quantum Number

n, is a number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of orbitals with the same n-value are referred to as electron shells or energy levels. 

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Atomic Orbital

Is a region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins. 

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Is a group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s,p, d or f) within a shell 

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Electron Configuration

Is the arrangement of electrons in an atom.

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Are substances formed from two or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio, usually shown by a chemical formula. 

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Ionic Bond

Is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. 

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Giant Ionic Lattice

Is a three-dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds. 

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Are the vertical column in the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties and their atoms have the same number of outer-shell electrons.

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Covalent Bond

Is a bond formed by a shared pair of electrons. 

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Lone pair

Is an outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding. 

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Is a measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond. 

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Permanent Dipole

Is a small charge difference across a bond that results from a difference in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms. 

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Polar Covalent Bond

Has a permanent dipole 

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Intermolecular Force

Is an attractive force between neighbouring molecules

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Permanent Dipole-Dipole Force

Is a weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules

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van der Waals' forces

Are attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules. 

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Hydrogen Bond

Is a strong dipole-dipole attraction between:

An electron-defcient hydrogen atom on one molecule and

A lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule.

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Metallic Bonding

Is the electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons. 

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Delocalised Electrons

Are shared between more than two atoms

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Giant Metallic Lattice

Is a three-dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons bonded together by strong metallic bonds. 

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Giant Covalent Lattice

Is a three-dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds. 

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