Name of piece : Glory of the Lord
Type of Piece : Oratoria (religious piece for orchestra and choir)
Date : 1741 Era : Baroque
Time signature : 3/4 Tempo : Allegro Key : A mojor Modulations : Emajor and Bmajor
Instruments : Basso continuo (cello and organ), violins, violas voices : SATB (male choir)
Features: Small orchestra (just strings), Basso contiuo, Variety of textures, Ornamented melodies
Mood : Joyful
How : Major key, Fast tempo, busy texture, lyrics about God
Devices : Imitation, canon, sequence (orchestral introduction), pedal note in soprano's
Name of piece : Symphony no.40 in G minor Type of Piece : Symphony Date : 1788 Era : Classical Time signature : 4/4 Tempo : Molto Allegro Key : G minor Modulations : Bflat major Structure : Sonata Form - Exposition-----------Development---------Recapitulation (1st/2nd subject)--(1st subject)---------(both subjects in Gminor)Instruments : Woodwind, Brass, Strings, and Percussion; 1st subject - violins and 2nd subject - woodwind.Features: New instruments (clarinet), more homophonic texture, bigger orchestra, contrasting moods, Symmetrical Melodies, Question and AnswerMoods : 1st subject - tense/exciting ---- 2nd subject - pathetique How : 1st subject - Fast tempo, minor key, repetition of rhythmn, soft start 2nd subject - melody falls alot, Major key, longer rhythmns, soft, chromatism, Devices : sequence, repition, pedal note
Name of piece : Raindrop preludeEra &Date : 1838 - Romantic Time signature : 4/4Tempo : ModerateKey : Dflat Major Modulations : Csharp Minor Instruments : Piano Instrumental techniques : LH and RH keep swapping roles. Features: Larger Orchestra, developing the piano (sustain pedal, felt iron hammer, 7'8ves), varied dynamics, nature theme, longer melodies, expressive, tempo rubato, ornamented melodiesMoods : Calm --------------- IntenseHow : tempo rubato, ornamented melody, pedal notes (rain), falling raindrops - 1st three notesDevices : Pedal noteTexture : Homophonic, Monophonic (once at the very start of the codetta) Structure : Ternary Form (ABA (short) Codetta)
4. Arnold Schoenberg
Name of piece : Peripetite
Era & Date : 1909 - Expressionist
Time signature : 3/4
Tempo : 'Sehr rasch' - very quick/ruhiger - calming/heftig - passionate.
Key : Atonal
Instruments : Flute, piccolo, oboe, cor anglais, clarinets, bass clarinet, bassoons contra- basson, horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba, timpani, cymbal, xylophone, standard strings.
Instrumental techniques : bowing a cymbal, higher registers.
Features: Intense, angular melodies, dissonance, mainly atonal, contrasts, changing musical ideas, use of full register, timbre important as melody,tend to be short pieces.
Moods : Dramatic
How : contrast in dynamics, texture and timbre, klangfarbeinmelodie, angular melody
Keywords : Hexachord - C, Bflat, E, F, G, C#, A, haupenstimme, nebenstimme.
Texture : Extreme changes -starts thick but suddenly becomes thin with a solo instrument.
Structure : Loose rondo (ABA1CA2) Returns back to A.
5. Steve Reich
Name of piece : Electric Counterpoint
Era &Date : 1987 - 20th century
Type of piece : Minimalism
Time signature : 3/2 - at one point a few guitars go into 12/8
Tempo : Fast(192) - Slow(96) - Fast
Key : E Minor
Modulations : C Minor
Instruments : 7 Guitars, 2 Bass Guitars and 1 Live Guitar
Instrumental techniques : strumming, plucking (guitar)
Features: Drones, repetition, phasing, metamorphsis, layering, note addition, gradual changes
Devices : Note addition, ostinato, canon, note subtraction
Technological effects : Pre-recorded, looping, EQ, reverb, delay
Texture : Monophonic at beggining at end, gradually builds up and graudually reduces.
Structure : A-B-Coda
6. Leonard Berstein
Name of piece : Somethings Coming
Era &Date : 1958 - 20th century
Type of piece : Solo (Aria) (other types are - duet, action song, chorus number)
Time signature : 3/4 (sounds like 6/8)
Tempo : Fast (176)
Key : D Major
Modulations : C Major (some insturments in G major at one point)
Instruments : Voice, clarinet, Saxophone, Horn, Trumpet, Trombone, Violins, cello, Double Bass, Drum Kit, Piano and Guitar.
Moods : Exciting & Tense
How / keywords : Musica Diabolos, accents, off-beats, cross rhythmns, word painting, push rhythmns, tritones, lyrics, Jazz chords, blue notes, chromaticism, extended chords,fast tempo.
Devices : Ostinato, imitation between instruments.
Texture : Normally homophonic, thickens and thins.
Structure : Intro -A-B-B1-A1-Outro
7. Miles Davis
Name of piece : All Blues
Type of song : Jazz piece - mostly improvise
Date & Era :1959 - 20th century
Tme signature : 6/4
Tempo : jazz waltz (moderate)
Key : G mixolydian mode
Instruments : Trumpet, Alto sax, Tenor sax, PIano (solo order), double bass, guitar, drum kit.
Features: Simple improvised solo's, 1 solo a time, contrasts in texture, piano - chordal accomp.
Moods : Calm/ laid back
How : Jazz Notes, Extended notes, blue notes (3rd, 5th, 7th), improvision, 12 bar blues
Normal - l / I / I / I / IV / IV / I / I / V / IV / I / I
Altered - I7 / I7 / I7 / I7 / IV7 / IV7 / I7 / I7 / V7#9 / VIb7#9 V7#9 / I7 / I7
Texture : simple texture - wind instru. play in 3rd and 4ths / piano & double bass play riff/chord
Structure : Intro - Head - Solo - Head - Outro also uses 12 bar blues
Key points : Saxes play in 3rds, first 2 notes in the head has an interval of a 6th, Solo's last for 4 cycles (chord progerssions).
8. Jeff Buckley
Name of piece : Grace
Era &Date : 1994 - 20th century
Type : Folk - Rock (rock based on 12 bar blues)
Time signature : 12/8
Tempo : 64 dotted crochet bpm
Key : starts with a ascending f melodic minor scale, intro - D major
Moderate : E minor (most of piece)
Instruments : 2 Electric & acoustic & Bass guitar , Voice (+backing vocals), synthesizer, drum kit, strings
Instrumental techniques : Strumming, pizzicato, picking, ripples, whispers, guitar tremelo, pizzicato strngs, hitting wooden body (guitar),melisma, falsetto voice, power chords (V-I)
Techno effects : Reverb, Delay, Panning, EQ - Telephone effect, overdubs, mandolin effect, distortion,
Moods : angry/passionat
How : Guitar techniques (above), Minor key (mostly), Middle 8 (power section), falsetto, lyrics
Texture : first part of intro is less busy, full band plays in second part. Middle 8 the busiest.
Structure : Intro- V1 - prechorus - C1 - Link - V2 - Pre-chorus - C2 - middle 8 - Link - V3 - outro
Name of piece : Why does my hear feel so badEra & Date : 1999 - house dance music Time signature : 4/4 Tempo : 98 bpm Key : A minor Modulations : C Major Instruments : Piano, Voice (samples), sub bass, Drums, synth strings, synth organsChords :1 - Why does my heart feel so bad - Am / Am / Em / Em / Gm / Gm / D / D (sus2/sus4) 2 - These open doors 1st part - C / C / Am / Am / C / C / Am / Am 3 - These open doors 2nd part - F / F / C / C / F / F / C / C Techonological effects : Delay, reverb, panning, looping, EQ, telephone effect Features: Samples, use of tecnological efects, simple harmonies, 4 to the floor Moods : regret, sad How : Minor key, unclean samples, static, reverb, delay, rhythmic piano chords Texture : sudden break for one bar, intro and outro is not busy, chorus and verse the busiest Structure : Intro - V1 - chorus - V2 - Break - chorus - Outo
Name of piece : Skye Waulking SongEra &Date : 2000 - Folk music Time signature : 12/8 (Hi-hat plays 3 beats/bar making it feel like 3/4)Tempo : ModerateKey : E minor (section 1)Modulations : G major (section 2) Instruments : Traditional - uilleann pipess, fiddle, accordian, hurdy gurdy,bouzoki Modern : drum kit, synth, electric piano, bass guitarFeatures: fusion, harmony < melody/rhythmn, improvise around melody, vocal line - Eminor pentatonic, non-sense syllables, learnt by ear.Moods : Calm (section 1) ------ more enrgetic (section 2)Section 1 : tradition with a simple beat, Eminr (chords Em-G), focus on singer not instrumentsSection 2 : Full rhythmn section (drum kit), G major, pipe solo improvises on vocal lineTexture : polyphonic mostly, heterophonic texture with uilleann pipes-fiddle in the instrumental Structure : Intro - V1 - Break - V2 - V3 - V4 - V5 - V6 - Instrumental - V7 - V8 - Outro
11. General Information - Rag desh
Name of piece : Rag desh (rainy season raga - Northern india (HIndustani music)Scale : Rag desh - (Ascending) C-D-F-G-B-C - (Descending) C-Bb-A-G-F-E-D-CElements of a ragaMelody : Raga on which the music is improvised on, many different rags with different notesDrone : provides accompaniment, provides harmony, usually tonic and dominant notesRhythmn : repeated rhythmic cycle called the tala, many different tala'sStructure of a Raga PerformanceThe Alap : introduces the raga to the audience, free metre, completely improvised, droneThe Jhor : the music speeds up, improvisation, no new instruments (no percussion), steady beatThe Jhala : a lot faster, improvising around the melody, more excitingThe Gat/Bandish : Pre-composed, percusion comes in, add improvisation, question & answer.Key wordsBols : improvised rhythms by the tabla over the main rhythmic cycle (tala) - syncopationsMatras : individual beats in a talaSam : First beat of the rhythmic cycle Tihai : repetiions of something 3 times to signal the endChand : Improvising in triplets Rasa : Overall mood created by the raga - Rag Desh creates Romance and Devotion
11. Rag Desh
Version 1 : Anoushka Shankkar (sitar)Instruments : Sitar, tabla, drone (produced by sruthi box)Structure:Alap -Gat1 -improvisations (+tihai) -Chand -improvisations (+tihai) - Gat2 - jhalla (+tihai)Tala : Gat 1 - Jhaptal (2+3+2+3) - 1(clap) - 2 - 3(clap) - 4 - 5 - 6(wave) - 7 - 8(clap) - 9 -10 Gat 2 - Teental (4+4+4+4) - 1(clap), 2, 3, 4, 5(clap), 6, 7, 8, 9(wave) ,10,11,12, 13(clap),14,15,16 Version 2 : Chiranji Lal Tanwar (voice) - 'Mhara janam maran'Instruments : Pakhawaj (percussion), voice, sarangi (bow), sarod (pluck), cymbals, tablaStructure : Alap (by sarod and singer) - Bhajan (pre composed gat with words) - solo'sTala : Keherwa Tal (2+2+2+2) - 1(clap) - 2 -3(clap) - 4 - 5(wave) - 6 - 7 (clap) - 8Version 3 : Benjy wertheimer (esraj and tabla) and Steve Gorn (bansuri)Instruments : Bansuri, esraj (bowed), tambura, tabla Structure : Alap (tambura, basuri) - Gat 1(slow tempo) - Gat 2 (fast tempo - drut)Tala : Rupak tal - (3+2+2) - 1(wave) - 2 - 3 - 4(clap) - 5 - 6(clap) - 7 Ektal tal - (2+2+2+2+2+2) - 1(clap) - 2 - 3(clap) -4 -5(wave) - 6 - 7(clap) - 8 - 9(wave) - 10 - 11 - (clap) -12
Name of piece : YiriCountry: Burkina Faso Time signature : 4/4 (except beginning) Tempo : Moderate Key : Gb pentatonic scale Instruments : vocals (male choir), 2 balafones (2nd an 8ve lower; range from Gb to Db), talking drum, djembe - timbre builds up. Features: Repetition, improvisation, polyphony, call and response, short melodies, Hocketing, Moods : joyful How : lyrics (energetic), fast beat, steady beat, syncopated rhythmnRhythmn : vocal solo - triplets, polyrhythmic, syncopated, cross rhythms (semi-quavers) Devices : Ostinato Texture : at the start - monophonic then heterophonic, mostly polyphonic- builds up. Structure : Intro (balafon plays tremelo) - Main - (instrument solo , choir solo etc) - Coda (balafon plays short phase 5x with variation, ends with a bell)