Music Listening paper, Edexcel, GCSE

Just about everything for the listening paper, brief notes not everything is explained but says core elements of each style.

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28 April 2012
Lieder Club
Pop Ballads Glossary
Concerto, Symphony, Sonata
Indian Classical
Chamber music
Choral Classics
A Cappella
American Line Dance (country and Western)
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Lieder Romantic period- 1820-1900 Schubert, Schumann, Beethoven
11 April 2012
Singer and Piano
German singing
Strophic or Through composed
Piano and voice work together to tell story - as important as each other
Arranged in song cycles (like an album- follows a theme)
Based on German poems
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Bob Dylan, Elton John, Snow Patrol
Pop Ballads
11 April 2012
Tells a story
Same tune & rhythm in verse but different lyrics
Can use many different instruments
Girl and Boy bands important in 1990s
Vocals are more important than accompaniment and louder Harmony*
Backing singers
Accompaniment reflects vocals, helps tell the story, exaggerates dramatic dynamics In harmony- all sing different notes
Unison- all sing same notes
Sometimes a instrumental section Descant- Sing a few octaves up
Call and Response/ Question and Answer
Strophic…read more

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Mainly Classical period 1750-1820 Hayden, Mozart, Beethoven
Concerto, Symphony, Sonatas Also Baroque 1600-1750
11 April 2012
CLASSICAL (1750-1800)
3/4 movements Soloist + Orchestra For an orchestra
1/2 instruments 3 movements -quick then slow then quick 4 movements
Sonata form* Cadenza- where soloist plays fiddly scale bits to show off Very long- can be over an hour
Can also include a choir
1st movement- sonata form, quick and happy
Chamber music- few…read more

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Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Glenn Miller
11 April 2012
Roots in Blues and Ragtime Mainly people follow band leader
Developed in USA by newly freed slaves Jazz standards are popular songs normally in the bands repertoire
Started in early 1900s Illegal bars in the prohibition often had jazz bands playing
1930s and 40s swing music popular -jazz you can dance to
1940s bebop/bop developed- complex harmonies, improvisations and syncopated
Came from segregation where original Dixieland jazz was played in illegal places
Dixieland is…read more

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Indian Classical
11 April 2012
Raga- scale for a mood
Sitar- lead string thing
Tambura- bass sitar
Tabla- a pair of drums
Tala- set rhythm played by tabla, but this can be added to by
adding bits over the top
Sarod- fretless sitar
Sarangi- bowed string thing
Bansuri- bamboo flute
Scroll down
Harmonium- keyboard with pump
Karnatic Kriti- with vocalists worshipping a Hindu god
Sam-first beat and last beat
Vibhags- like a bar but can have different number of beats
Vibhag Khal- different sounding…read more

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12 April 2012
From Java and Bali Indonesia Instruments
Expressive Saron- metallophone plays main melody then lower pitch ones play some of the melody and
higher pitch ones play a faster version
Everything forms to make one sound
Gender, bonangs, gambang, celempung, rebab and suling add embellishment
Not written, learned by copying
Gongs- mark where in the Gongang you are
Players learn every bit
Gong ageng- biggest gong plays last beat of the cycle
5 note Gamelan scale= Slendro
Kempul, Kenong and ketuk…read more

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Chamber music
12 April 2012
Baroque 1600-1750 Instruments
Terraced dynamics Harpsichord, flute, recorder, oboe bassoon, organ, strings
Built from motifs so repetition Harpsichord plays Basso continuo (continuous bass bit)
Simple harmonies (mainly triad chords)
Lots of ornaments eg.…read more

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Choral Classics 1300s-
Renaissance Baroque Classical Romantic
Bach & Handel
12 April 2012
Often sacred church music sang by monks
Masses sung in Catholic churches
Oratorios are Bible stories+ music
Baroque choirs- small and all men (women banned from Church)
Written mostly for 4 voices- treble- high boy, countertenor- lower but high , tenor - middle/high man,
bass -low man
Operas were a non secular form of Choir music
Victorian choirs very big
Later they got mixed choirs with SATB: soprano- high female, alto-…read more

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African A Capella Lady Smith Black Mambazo
12 April 2012
Zulu singing- no istruments ISSICATHAMIYA MBUBE
Two types Mbube- Lion Soft ad gentle Loud and powerful
Isicathamiya- tiptoe Normally all male Normally all male but can get female singers too
Blends voices in harmony High pitch lead, 4 part bass harmony
4 part harmonies in call and response Homophonic or polyphonic
Uses dance moves- stamps etc to keep people in time
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