Development is measured by...
- Birth + death rate, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
- Types of employment - primary, secondary, tertiary + quaternary
- Access to clean water
- % of rural pop.
- HDI, GDP
However, there are PROBLEMS when measuring development. It fails to show disparity (differences) in poverty within a country, benefits are not always fairly distributed, so some benefit more than others.
The Brandt Line is a line on a map that separates the developed north from the developing south. The PROBLEMS of the line are that it is bias as it was created by a wealthy man, it only uses GDP, some countries in the South have now developed + it's outdated.
The North has low birth + death rates, high literacy levels, high GNP, large tertiary industry.
The South has low literacy levels, high birth rates, low GNP, large primary industry.
Core and Rural periphery
Maharashtra - richest core region in India, has Mumbai. Economic wealth comes from...
- Manufacturing - booming industries are steel, cement, computer software + textiles
- Bollywood produces feature films, which are viewed worldwide
- Services - banking, IT, insurance, hotels
- IT graduates employed by large Western companies e.g. BT
Bihar - rural periphery has mainly rural pop. trapped in cycle of poverty...
- Women - rarely own land, have few rights, are poorly paid landless labourers
- Farming - most are subsistence farmers, rent land + when there is little work, they rent money. Low incomes + debt lead to malnutrition, + eventually death. Children are needed for farming, so many are uneducated + illiterate (low primary school attendance).
- Cycle of poverty = subsistence farming -> little/ no surplus farm produce -> little/ no income -> no investment in machinery/ fertilisers
Differences between the core + the rural periphery are: Maharashtra has a higher literacy rate + lower IMR than Bihar. Bihar has a higher fertility rate (due to less access to contraception), Maharashtra has a larger urban population + a higher life expectancy (better health care).
The multiplier effect + micro-hydro schemes
The Multiplier effect
- Growth of industry
- Needs workforce
- People move there
- More houses, water + services
- Workers needed to provide these
- More food needed
- Shops open, more services needed
- Demand for more workers
- Growth continues, settlement + economy expand
As the multiplier effect becomes greater, a core region can develop.
Micro-hydro schemes have a generation capacity below 100kW. Water flowing through a pipe turns a turbine to produce electricity. They benefit rural peripheries . Advantages are that they help spread technology to rural areas, involves locals, it uses appropriate technology, has a low cost + most equipment is made in developing countries.
Top-down development case study
Sardar Sarovar Dam across the Narmada River in India, KEY: social, environmental, economic
Features: The dam was created to store monsoon rains to use in the dry season, therefore providing water to the semi-desert north-west India + promoting economic development by providing electricity.
- Doesn't involve locals + experts plan it
- Big scheme run by govt. + uses machinery
- Provides water for the driest areas + improves irrigation -> boosts economy
- Provides HEP, jobs, water
- Provides areas for leisure activites, which increases tourism
- Land has to be flooded - farmland submerged, religious sites flooded + evacuation
- The electricity is expensive - only cities benefit.
- Weight of dam can trigger earthquakes
Bottom-up development case study
Biogas (using cow dung) in India, KEY: social, environmental, economic
Features: Run by ASTRA
- Appropriate technology
- Involves locals + experts help locals
- Low cost
- Provides electricity for locals + cooking is faster
- Less health problems (small amount of smoke)
- Reduces fuel crisis due to less deforestation
- Reduces dependency on firewood for fuel
- Small-scale - benefits few
- Requires maintenance
- Methane increases global warming
Sustainable development case study
Tree planting in Gujurat in India, KEY: social, environmental, economic
Features: India's pop. is increasing, so less land suitable for farming is available. The National Tree Growers' Federation helps villagers to reclaim degraded land by planting trees. Key focus is the participation of women, landless farmers + landowners.
- Uses natural resources + minimises energy use
- Minimises waste + encourages re-use
- Protects animals + plants
- Affordable - doesn't put the country into debt
- Minimises water use e.g. uses rainwater for irrigation
- Benefits both the rich + the poor
- Trees produce fuel wood to be used in industry e.g. bamboo craft
- Meets needs for livestock, fodder + food
- Cheaper fodder increases milk production -> boosts local economy
- Provides jobs + reduces pollution
- Quality of life - how happy + content people are with their life
- Standard of living - quality + quantity of goods + services
- Gross National Product (GNP) - goods + services over a year ÷ population
- Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - value of goods + services over a year in US$
- Human Development Index (HDI) - score between 0 and 1 measuring the development of a country. It is based on education, life expectancy + income.
- Core - where economic growth takes place (cities + ports)
- Rural periphery - regions away from the core that play a small part in the country's economy
- Development - change (usually improvement) for people + the economy. It is a measure of how wealthy a country is
- 'Growth poles' - points / places where industries + ports develop
- Sustainable - meeting the needs of people now + in the future, limiting harm to the environment