Development Dilemmas

Revision notes. Top-down example is the dam in Narmada and bottom-up example is biogas plant in india. Hope you find it useful 

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  • Created on: 31-05-12 20:50
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Development dilemmas
Development ­ the use of resources to improve the
standard of living of a nation.
How can we measure development?
1. Amount of people in secondary, tertiary and quaternary
2. GDP per capita
3. Life expectancy
4. Literacy rate
GDP ­ Gross domestic product. Value of all goods and
services produced in one year in a country or region. It is
shown as a total, or per person (per capita) by dividing the
total by population.
HDI ­ Human development Index is a combined measure of
development between 0-1 calculated using 3 measures of
development ­ GDP per capita, life expectancy and adult
GDP per capita in India's states and regions.
Most of the regions in south India have high GDP's e.g. Tamil
Many regions on coastal areas instead of inland have high
GDP's such as Gujarat and Karnataka.
Inland areas have lower GDP's such as Rajasthan and
Reasons for this distribution are firstly that coastal areas
are where trade occurs so a lot of the profit form products
go there.
Many people move from inland rural areas to of India to the
urban coastal areas so more people earning money in that
Core regions ­ these are areas that contain the greatest
area of wealth in a country. These regions contain major
Periphery regions ­ These are areas that contain the
lowest levels of wealth within a country. These regions are
mainly rural.

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Why does the core region develop?
Multiplier effect ­ if new jobs are created, people who take
them have money to spend in the shops, which means that
more shop workers are needed. The shop workers pay
their taxes and spend their newfound money, creating yet
more jobs in industries as diverse as transport and
Cycle of poverty ­ Where poor families become trapped in
poverty for at least 3 generations. They have limited or no
resources.…read more

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Little or no income
Core and periphery regions develop in a country because of
the multiplier effect and cycle of poverty.
People who live in poor areas who are increasing in wealth
will move out to a periphery region to get a better job and
become richer causing the multiplier effect.
The place where that person came from will stay poor; the
government won't invest money into it keeping living
standards low.…read more

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It's multipurpose ­ provides energy drinking water and
- Demands for water are rising as population increases.
- Encourage economic development
- Opens dry land for farming by irrigation
- Makes it possible to store Indian monsoon rain.
- Parts of India are semi dessert and have water scarcity.
Economic social and environmental benefits and problems
with the dam.
Benefits: Irrigation produces more food to sell oversee.
Energy produced for industrial development.
Provides jobs to build and maintain.…read more

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Farmers who owned land near the dam ­ LOSE OUT because
the land they owned where they grew their crops to earn a
living has gone so they have lost their lively hood to the
Farmers in Gujarat and Rajasthan ­ BENEFIT because they
are close enough to the dam to use it for irrigation and get
a better crop yield yet aren't to close so their land will get
flooded.…read more

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Bottom-up development
Bottom up development:
> Experts working with local people and communities to
identify their needs.
> Giving local people control in improving their lives
> Experts assisting with progress.
> Uses appropriate technology that the community would
understand and uses resources nearby.
Biogas in India
Put into the plant:
Organic matter
Wood chips
Animal dung
Fire wood
Rice husks
Rice straw
Chicken droppings
Coconut tree leaves
You collect:
Biogas (methane and CO waste)
Solid waste fertilizer.…read more

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Cow dung is no longer stored in the home it goes straight
into the biogas digester.
- Dung fermentation within the pit destroys pathogens
sanitation has greatly improved.
- 200000 permanent jobs created as a result.
- Cattle are now kept in the family compound preventing
them from going into the forest and eating saplings
preventing woodland generation.
- The Slurry, which remains after fermentation, is richer in
nutrients than ordinary cow manure.…read more

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However, the people who believe in the
boserupian theory believe that the world can be made
more sustainable with clean coal, or more efficient car
10 rules of sustainability
1. Involve local people in decision-making.
2. Be affordable: it must not put countries or people in debt.
3. Promote good health.
4. Protect and encourage native wildlife (plant and
5. Use land that has been developed before where possible.
6. Minimise waste and encourage reuse and recycling.
7.…read more


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