Development Dynamics


Development Dynamics

There are 4 ways that development can be defined: 

1. Economic Development - improvements in a countrys or peoples employment, income and living standards.

2. Social Development - improvements in people lives in health, education and culture.

3. Political Development - improvements in a countrys system of government or the involvement of people when voting.

4. Sustainable Development - meeting the needs of the current generation without compramising the abiloty of future generations to meet their needs.

The GINI Co-Efficient - Measures the extent to which distribution of income is unequal in a country. A GINI co-efficient of 0 means everyone in a country has the same income - 1 means one person has all the income. Low value = more equal distribution e.g. European nations High value = unequal income e.g. South Africa.

The Corruption perception Index - The quality og governemt has a large influence on development . Poor quality of government = high levels of corruption. The Corruption perception index grades countries from highly corrupted (0), to very clean (100).

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Development Dynamics

Demographic Data = Statistical data about the characteristics of a population, such as the age, gender, and income of the people within the population.

Population structure = The make up or composition of a population e.g. how many males and females at different age groups. Usually shown in a population pyramid.

Population pyramid (Age sex structure diagram) = A bar graph which shows the age and gender strucuture of a population.

Birth Rate = The number of births per 1000 per year.

Death Rate = The number of deaths per 1000 per year.

Life expectancy = Average number of years that a person can expect to live.

Dependancy Ratio = Proportion of people below (ages 0-14) and above (over 65) normal working age. Its calculated by adding both groups together and dividing by the number aged 15-64 (the working population) multiplied by 100. The lower the number, the greater the number of people who work and are less dependant.

Infant mortality = Number of children per 1000 live births who die before their first birthday.

Fertility Rate = Average number of births per women.

Maternal Mortality = Number of mothers per 100,000 who die at childbirth.

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Malawi (Developing)

Narrow top = low life expectancy, steep = high death rate - health services may be poor, there is low gdp per capita, therefore they cant afford health care. 

low gdp - bad healthcare - less doctors - low investment in education - not trained.

wide base = high fertility rate, high birth rate  - culteral and socio-economic preference for large numbers of children, this is because families will want as many people working/farming to earn more money. Theres also lots of children to replace the infants that die and look after the elderly (no pensions).

Brazil (Emerging)

Birth rate and death rate decreases - increased life expectancy

Education and literacy increase = access and advice on contraception

More economically active people - more women working - GDP increasing - more money - afford healthcare - children will live longer.

UK (Developed)

Low death rate and wide top =  high life expectancy

Narrow base = low fertility rates - women have more freedom and better education - they are more career focased. Higher female education rates = smaller family sizes, due to knowledge about contraception, economic independance (women want to work, so large families are difficult).

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Development Dynamics

Top quintile - the richest 20% of the worlds countries own 83% of the worlds worth.

Bottom 2 quintiles - the poorest 40% of countries own 3% of the worlds wealth. (Quintile =20%)

Colonies = Areas that were owned and run by an invading colonial power, and were taken by force.

Colonilism = Acquiring control over another country, occupying it with settlers and exploiting it economically.

Neo- colonialism = The idea that developed countries control developing ones indirectly.

Systems of governance = The way a country is run, for example as an elected democracy or an unelected dictatorship.

Open economy = A country with few trade barriers, which encourages trade with other countries.

Closed economy = A country which does little trade beyond its borders.

Topography = The shape of the land, whether areas are mountainous or flat. e.g. Deserts - extreme heat - no water - no farming ect.

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Causes of Global Inequality - 

Physical Environment - Access to the dea is very important, Landlocked/ mountainous countries have developed slowly. Climate and hazards - Hazards can reverse development. Access to a port offers trade routes. e.g. Bangladesh.

History (colonialism) - UK, France and Spain expanded empires, Exploited colonies for economic gain . Rich countries dominate poorer ones - Economic and political problems, strong influence, exploitation of land.

Economic and Political policies - Open economies (UK) encourage investments. Closed (North Korea) no imports/exports. Open encourages jobs and business. - Political mismanagement and corruption can reverse development (Zimbabwe). HIV/AIDS impacted African countries.

Social investment - Countries that prioritise investment in education and health have developed faster. - When investment stops, health problems occur and people become less educated which causes a decrease in investment. People suffer from diseases such as cholera and malaria. e.g. Sierra Leone,

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GDP/capita (Gross Domestic Product) - Average income in a county per person - indicates the level of development.

HDI - Human Development Index - Composite indicator(multiple factors) - gdp per capita, life expectancy, mean years of schooling and adult literacy rate.

Low HDI - Africa - lots of rich and poor - inequality (choropleth map bad - no inequality - only averages)

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